Amlodipine and Benazepril (Lexi-Drugs)

ALERT: US Boxed Warning
  Fetal toxicity:
Pronunciation

(am LOE di peen & ben AY ze pril)

Brand Names: US

Lotrel

Dosing: Adult

Note: Dose is individualized; combination product may be substituted for individual components in patients currently maintained on both agents separately or in patients not adequately controlled with monotherapy (using one of the agents or an agent within same antihypertensive class).

Hypertension: Oral: Initial: Amlodipine 2.5 mg/benazepril 10 mg once daily; may titrate dose based on blood pressure response; Maximum: amlodipine 10 mg/benazepril 40 mg once daily

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing. Initiate with lowest dose.

Dosing: Renal Impairment: Adult

CrCl >30 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary.

CrCl ≤30 mL/minute: Use is not recommended.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

There are no specific dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling; initiate with lowest dose and titrate slowly. Use with caution; amlodipine elimination prolonged.

Use: Labeled Indications

Hypertension: Management of hypertension.

Clinical Practice Guidelines

See individual agents.

Administration: Oral

Administer with or without food.

Storage/Stability

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from moisture.

Medication Patient Education with HCAHPS Considerations

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of infection, signs of kidney problems (urinary retention, hematuria, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain), signs of high potassium (abnormal heartbeat, confusion, dizziness, passing out, weakness, shortness of breath, numbness or tingling feeling), signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice), angioedema, severe dizziness, passing out, persistent cough, angina, severe abdominal pain, swelling of arms or legs, severe nausea, vomiting, or difficulty swallowing (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to amlodipine, benazepril, other ACE inhibitors, or any component of the formulation; history of angioedema (with or without previous ACE inhibitor treatment); coadministration with aliskiren in patients with diabetes; coadministration with a neprilysin inhibitor (eg, sacubitril) or within 36 hours of switching to or from a neprilysin inhibitor

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Angina/MI: Increased angina and/or MI has occurred with initiation or dosage titration of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. Reflex tachycardia may occur resulting in angina and/or MI in patients with obstructive coronary disease, especially in the absence of concurrent beta-blockade.

• Angioedema: At any time during treatment (especially following first dose and may appear after months of therapy) angioedema may occur rarely with ACE inhibitors; it may involve the head and neck (potentially compromising airway) or the intestine (presenting with abdominal pain). African-Americans and patients with idiopathic or hereditary angioedema or previous angioedema associated with ACE inhibitor therapy may be at an increased risk. Risk may also be increased with concomitant use of mTOR inhibitor (eg, everolimus) therapy or a neprilysin inhibitor (eg, sacubitril). Prolonged frequent monitoring may be required especially if tongue, glottis, or larynx are involved as they are associated with airway obstruction. Patients with a history of airway surgery may have a higher risk of airway obstruction. Aggressive early and appropriate management is critical. Use is contraindicated in patients with a history of angioedema with or without previous ACE inhibitor treatment.

• Cholestatic jaundice: A rare toxicity associated with ACE inhibitors includes cholestatic jaundice and isolated cases of acute liver failure (some fatal); discontinue if marked elevation of hepatic transaminases or jaundice occurs.

• Cough: An ACE inhibitor cough is a dry, hacking, nonproductive one that usually occurs within the first few months of treatment and should generally resolve within 1 to 4 weeks after discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Other causes of cough should be considered (eg, pulmonary congestion in patients with heart failure) and excluded prior to discontinuation.

• Hyperkalemia: May occur with ACE inhibitors; risk factors include renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium-containing salts. Use cautiously, if at all, with these agents and monitor potassium closely.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions can occur with ACE inhibitors. Severe anaphylactoid reactions may be seen during hemodialysis (eg, CVVHD) with high-flux dialysis membranes (eg, AN69), and rarely, during low density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate cellulose. Rare cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients undergoing sensitization treatment with hymenoptera (bee, wasp) venom while receiving ACE inhibitors.

• Hypotension/syncope: Symptomatic hypotension with or without syncope can occur with ACE inhibitors (usually with the first several doses); effects are most often observed in volume or salt-depleted patients; correct volume and/or salt depletion prior to initiation; close monitoring of patient is required especially with initial dosing and dosing increases; blood pressure must be lowered at a rate appropriate for the patient’s clinical condition. Although dose reduction may be necessary, hypotension is not a reason for discontinuation of future ACE inhibitor use especially in patients with heart failure where a reduction in systolic blood pressure is a desirable observation.

• Neutropenia/agranulocytosis: Another ACE Inhibitor, captopril, has been associated with rare cases of agranulocytosis, neutropenia, or leukopenia with myeloid hypoplasia. Patients with renal impairment are at high risk of developing neutropenia. Patients with both renal impairment and collagen vascular disease (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus) are at an even higher risk of developing neutropenia. Periodically monitor CBC with differential in these patients.

• Peripheral edema: The most common side effect of amlodipine is peripheral edema (dose dependent); occurs within 2 to 3 weeks of starting therapy.

• Renal function deterioration: May be associated with deterioration of renal function and/or increases in serum creatinine, particularly in patients with low renal blood flow (eg, renal artery stenosis, severe heart failure, post-MI, volume depletion) whose glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is dependent on efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by angiotensin II; deterioration may result in oliguria, acute renal failure, and progressive azotemia. Small increases in serum creatinine may occur following initiation; consider withholding or discontinuation in patients with progressive and/or significant deterioration in renal function.

Disease-related concerns:

• Aortic stenosis: Use amlodipine with extreme caution in patients with severe aortic stenosis; may reduce coronary perfusion resulting in ischemia.

• Cardiovascular disease: Initiation of therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease warrants close observation due to the potential consequences posed by falling blood pressure (eg, MI, stroke). Fluid replacement, if needed, may restore blood pressure; therapy may then be resumed. Discontinue therapy in patients whose hypotension recurs.

• Collagen vascular disease: Use benazepril with caution in patients with collagen vascular disease especially with concomitant renal impairment; may be at increased risk for hematologic toxicity.

• Hepatic impairment: Use amlodipine with caution in patients with hepatic impairment; may require lower starting dose.

• Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with outflow tract obstruction: Use amlodipine with caution in patients with HCM and outflow tract obstruction since reduction in afterload may worsen symptoms associated with this condition (ACCF/AHA [Gersh 2011]).

• Renal artery stenosis: Use benazepril with caution in patients with unstented unilateral/bilateral renal artery stenosis. When unstented bilateral renal artery stenosis is present, use is generally avoided due to the elevated risk of deterioration in renal function unless possible benefits outweigh risks.

• Renal impairment: Not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Elderly: Initiate amlodipine at a lower dose in the elderly.

• Pregnancy: [US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Used as a replacement for separate dosing of components or combination therapy when response to single agent is suboptimal; the fixed combination is not indicated for initial treatment of hypertension.

• Surgery: In patients on chronic ACE inhibitor therapy, intraoperative hypotension may occur with induction and maintenance of general anesthesia; use with caution before, during, or immediately after major surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass, intraoperative blood loss, or vasodilating anesthesia increases endogenous renin release. Use of ACE inhibitors perioperatively will blunt angiotensin II formation and may result in hypotension. However, discontinuation of therapy prior to surgery is controversial. If continued preoperatively, avoidance of hypotensive agents during surgery is prudent (Hillis 2011).

Geriatric Considerations

See individual agents. Combination products are not recommended as first-line treatment. Use only if doses of individual agents correspond to the combination available.

Pregnancy Risk Factor

D

Pregnancy Considerations

[US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected. See individual agents.

Breast-Feeding Considerations

Benazepril is present in breast milk. It is not known if amlodipine is present in breast milk. Breastfeeding is not recommended by the manufacturer. See individual agents.

Lexicomp Pregnancy & Lactation, In-Depth
Briggs’ Drugs in Pregnancy & Lactation
Metabolism/Transport Effects

Refer to individual components.

Drug Interactions 

Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Aliskiren: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Management: Aliskiren use with ACEIs or ARBs in patients with diabetes is contraindicated. Combined use in other patients should be avoided, particularly when CrCl is less than 60 mL/min. If combined, monitor potassium, creatinine, and blood pressure closely. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Allopurinol: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the potential for allergic or hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Alpha1-Blockers: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When amifostine is used at chemotherapy doses, blood pressure lowering medications should be withheld for 24 hours prior to amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be withheld, amifostine should not be administered. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Amphetamines: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Angiotensin II: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin II. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Management: In US labeling, use of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended. It is not clear if any other combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB would be any safer. Consider alternatives to the combination when possible. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs. Management: Concurrent use of felodipine or nisoldipine with itraconazole is specifically contraindicated. Frequent monitoring is warranted with any such combination; calcium channel blocker dose reductions may be required. Exceptions: Fluconazole; Isavuconazonium Sulfate. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Antihepaciviral Combination Products: May increase the serum concentration of AmLODIPine. Management: Reduce amlodipine dose by at least 50% and monitor for increased amlodipine effects (eg, hypotension) if an antihepaciviral combination product is initiated. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]).Risk C: Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Aprotinin: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Monitor for increased aripiprazole pharmacologic effects. Aripiprazole dose adjustments may or may not be required based on concomitant therapy and/or indication. Consult full interaction monograph for specific recommendations. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Atosiban: Calcium Channel Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Atosiban. Specifically, there may be an increased risk for pulmonary edema and/or dyspnea. Risk C: Monitor therapy

AzaTHIOprine: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of AzaTHIOprine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Management: Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of calcium channel blockers with concomitant barbiturate therapy. Calcium channel blocker dose adjustments may be necessary. Nimodipine Canadian labeling contraindicates concomitant use with phenobarbital. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Benperidol: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brigatinib: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Brigatinib may enhance the bradycardic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bromperidol: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Bromperidol. Bromperidol may diminish the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk X: Avoid combination

Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine): Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine) may enhance the hypotensive effect of Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine). Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine) may increase the serum concentration of Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Calcium Salts: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: May increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine). Management: Consider calcium channel blocker (CCB) dose adjustments or alternative therapy in patients receiving concomitant carbamazepine. Nimodipine Canadian labeling contraindicates concurrent use with carbamazepine. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Clofazimine: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Clopidogrel: Calcium Channel Blockers may diminish the therapeutic effect of Clopidogrel. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk X: Avoid combination

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine) may increase the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). CycloSPORINE (Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine). Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May increase the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase the serum concentration of AmLODIPine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of AmLODIPine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dapoxetine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dexmethylphenidate: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dofetilide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Drospirenone: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Duvelisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Efavirenz: May decrease the serum concentration of Calcium Channel Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Eplerenone: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Everolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ferric Gluconate: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Gluconate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex. Specifically, the risk for angioedema or allergic reactions may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fluconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Calcium Channel Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fosaprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fosnetupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fosphenytoin: Calcium Channel Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Fosphenytoin. Management: Monitor for phenytoin toxicity with concomitant use of a calcium channel blocker (CCB) or decreased phenytoin effects with CCB discontinuation. Monitor for decreased CCB therapeutic effects. Nimodipine Canadian labeling contraindicates use with phenytoin. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk X: Avoid combination

Gelatin (Succinylated): Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Gelatin (Succinylated). Specifically, the risk of a paradoxical hypotensive reaction may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Gold Sodium Thiomalate: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Gold Sodium Thiomalate. An increased risk of nitritoid reactions has been appreciated. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract): Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Specifically, ACE inhibitors may increase the risk of severe allergic reaction to Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Heparin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Heparins (Low Molecular Weight): May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

HydroCHLOROthiazide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Benazepril. HydroCHLOROthiazide may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Benazepril. Benazepril may decrease the serum concentration of HydroCHLOROthiazide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Icatibant: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk X: Avoid combination

Iron Dextran Complex: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iron Dextran Complex. Specifically, patients receiving an ACE inhibitor may be at an increased risk for anaphylactic-type reactions. Management: Follow iron dextran recommendations closely regarding both having resuscitation equipment and trained personnel on-hand prior to iron dextran administration and the use of a test dose prior to the first therapeutic dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ivosidenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lanthanum: May decrease the serum concentration of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Management: Administer angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at least two hours before or after lanthanum. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Larotrectinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Levodopa-Containing Products: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa-Containing Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lithium: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. Management: Lithium dosage reductions will likely be needed following the addition of an ACE inhibitor. Monitor patient response to lithium closely following addition or discontinuation of concurrent ACE inhibitor treatment. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lomitapide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Management: Patients on lomitapide 5 mg/day may continue that dose. Patients taking lomitapide 10 mg/day or more should decrease the lomitapide dose by half. The lomitapide dose may then be titrated up to a max adult dose of 30 mg/day. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Loop Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Loop Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lorlatinib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Avoid concurrent use of lorlatinib with any CYP3A4 substrates for which a minimal decrease in serum concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate could lead to therapeutic failure and serious clinical consequences. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lormetazepam: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lovastatin: AmLODIPine may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Macrolide Antibiotics: May decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Management: Consider using a noninteracting macrolide. Felodipine Canadian labeling specifically recommends avoiding its use in combination with clarithromycin. Exceptions: Azithromycin (Systemic); Fidaxomicin; Roxithromycin; Spiramycin. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Magnesium Salts: Calcium Channel Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Magnesium Salts. Magnesium Salts may enhance the hypotensive effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Melatonin: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

MiFEPRIStone: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Minimize doses of CYP3A4 substrates, and monitor for increased concentrations/toxicity, during and 2 weeks following treatment with mifepristone. Avoid cyclosporine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, fentanyl, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus, and tacrolimus. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Naftopidil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing): Calcium Channel Blockers may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing).Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicergoline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nitroprusside: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Nitroprusside. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Phenytoin: Calcium Channel Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Phenytoin. Phenytoin may decrease the serum concentration of Calcium Channel Blockers. Management: Avoid use of nimodipine or nifedipine with phenytoin. Monitor for phenytoin toxicity and/or decreased calcium channel blocker effects with any concurrent use. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pholcodine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Pholcodine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pimozide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Risk X: Avoid combination

Pitolisant: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Combined use of pitolisant with a CYP3A4 substrate that has a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Other CYP3A4 substrates should be monitored more closely when used with pitolisant. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Potassium Salts: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pregabalin: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Pregabalin. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Quinagolide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QuiNIDine: Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine) may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine). Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine) may decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Racecadotril: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk for angioedema may be increased with this combination. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rifamycin Derivatives: May decrease the serum concentration of Calcium Channel Blockers. This primarily affects oral forms of calcium channel blockers. Management: The labeling for some US and Canadian calcium channel blockers contraindicate use with rifampin, however recommendations vary. Consult appropriate labeling. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sacubitril: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sacubitril. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased with this combination.Risk X: Avoid combination

Salicylates: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Simvastatin: AmLODIPine may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Avoid the concurrent use of amlodipine with simvastatin when possible. If used together, avoid doses of simvastatin greater than 20 mg/day (for adults). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sincalide: Drugs that Affect Gallbladder Function may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sincalide. Management: Consider discontinuing drugs that may affect gallbladder motility prior to the use of sincalide to stimulate gallbladder contraction. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sodium Phosphates: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with ACEIs, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function closely. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

St John’s Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Systemic): Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine) may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tacrolimus (Systemic): Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Temsirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

TiZANidine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tolvaptan: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Trimethoprim: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Urapidil: May interact via an unknown mechanism with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Management: Avoid concomitant use of urapidil and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Food Interactions

See individual agents.

Test Interactions

See individual agents.

Monitoring Parameters

BUN, electrolytes, serum creatinine, and blood pressure. In patients with renal impairment and/or collagen vascular disease, monitor CBC with differential periodically.

Advanced Practitioners Physical Assessment/Monitoring

See individual agents.

Nursing Physical Assessment/Monitoring

See individual agents.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Capsule, Oral:

Lotrel: Amlodipine 5 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 10 mg, Amlodipine 10 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 40 mg, Amlodipine 10 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 20 mg, Amlodipine 5 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 20 mg

Lotrel: Amlodipine 5 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 40 mg [DSC], Amlodipine 2.5 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 10 mg [DSC] [contains polysorbate 80]

Generic: Amlodipine 10 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 20 mg, Amlodipine 10 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 40 mg, Amlodipine 2.5 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 10 mg, Amlodipine 5 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 10 mg, Amlodipine 5 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 20 mg, Amlodipine 5 mg and benazepril hydrochloride 40 mg

Generic Available (US)

Yes

Pricing: US

Capsules (amLODIPine Besy-Benazepril HCl Oral)

2.5-10 mg (per each): $2.65

5-10 mg (per each): $2.71

5-20 mg (per each): $2.86

5-40 mg (per each): $4.01 – $4.45

10-20 mg (per each): $3.32

10-40 mg (per each): $4.84 – $5.38

Capsules (Lotrel Oral)

5-10 mg (per each): $11.39

5-20 mg (per each): $12.03

10-20 mg (per each): $13.98

10-40 mg (per each): $15.40

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer’s AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Mechanism of Action

Amlodipine: Directly acts on vascular smooth muscle to produce peripheral arterial vasodilation reducing peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure.

Benazepril: Competitive inhibition of angiotensin I being converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, through the ACE activity, with resultant lower levels of angiotensin II, which causes an increase in plasma renin activity and a reduction in aldosterone secretion.

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics

See individual agents.

Local Anesthetic/Vasoconstrictor Precautions

No information available to require special precautions

Effects on Dental Treatment

Fewer reports of gingival hyperplasia with amlodipine than with other CCBs (usually resolves upon discontinuation); consultation with physician is suggested.

Effects on Bleeding

No information available to require special precautions

Index Terms

Amlodipine Besylate/Benazepril; Benazepril Hydrochloride and Amlodipine Besylate

References

Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride [prescribing information]. Sellersville, PA: Teva; February 2011.

Gersh BJ, Maron BJ, Bonow RO, et al; American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; American Association for Thoracic Surgery; American Society of Echocardiography; American Society of Nuclear Cardiology; Heart Failure Society of America; Heart Rhythm Society; Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions; Society of Thoracic Surgeons. 2011 ACCF/AHA guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2011;124(24):e783-e831.[PubMed 22068434]

Hillis LD, Smith PK, Anderson JL, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA Guideline for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2011;124(23):2610-2642.

Jorgensen MG, “Prevalence of Amlodipine-Related Gingival Hyperplasia,” J Periodontol, 1997, 68(7):676-8.[PubMed 9249639 ]

Lotrel (amlodipine/benazepril) [prescribing information]. East Hanover, NJ: Novartis; July 2017.

Naito T, Kubono N, Deguchi S, et al. Amlodipine passage into breast milk in lactating women with pregnancy-induced hypertension and its estimation of infant risk for breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 2015;31(2):301-306. doi: 10.1177/0890334414560195.[PubMed 25447596]

Wynn RL, “An Update on Calcium Channel Blocker-Induced Gingival Hyperplasia,” Gen Dent, 1995, 43(3):218-22.[PubMed 8940577]

Wynn RL, “Calcium Channel Blockers and Gingival Hyperplasia,” Gen Dent, 1991, 39(4):240-3.[PubMed 1916193]

Wynn RL, “Calcium Channel Blockers and Gingival Hyperplasia-An Update,” Gen Dent, 2009, 57(2):105-7.[PubMed 19552357]

Brand Names: International

Amace-bp (IN); Ambix (UY); Amdopril (BD); Amlibon B (VE); Amlopin (VE); Ampliron Plus (PY); Amtrel (TH); Benpinomap (EG); Cacetor (BD); Combivasc (EG); Pelmec Duo (AR); Terloc Duo (AR); Vasocal EK (EC)

Amlodipine and Benazepril (Patient Education – Adult Medication)
You must carefully read the “Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer” below in order to understand and correctly use this information
Pronunciation

(am LOE di peen & ben AY ze pril)

Brand Names: US

Lotrel

Warning
  • Do not take if you are pregnant. Use during pregnancy may cause birth defects or loss of the unborn baby. If you get pregnant or plan on getting pregnant while taking this drug, call your doctor right away.
What is this drug used for?
  • It is used to treat high blood pressure.
  • It may be given to you for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.
What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take this drug?
  • If you have an allergy to amlodipine, benazepril, or any other part of this drug.
  • If you are allergic to any drugs like this one, any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had, like rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs.
  • If you have ever had a very bad or life-threatening reaction called angioedema. Signs may be swelling of the hands, face, lips, eyes, tongue, or throat; trouble breathing; trouble swallowing; unusual hoarseness.
  • If you have kidney disease.
  • If you are taking a drug that has aliskiren in it and you also have high blood sugar (diabetes) or kidney problems. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if a drug you take has aliskiren in it.
  • If you have taken a drug that has sacubitril in it in the last 36 hours.
  • If you are breast-feeding or plan to breast-feed.
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this drug.
  • Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take this drug with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.
What are some things I need to know or do while I take this drug?
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take this drug. This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • It may take a few weeks to see the full effect.
  • Avoid driving and doing other tasks or actions that call for you to be alert until you see how this drug affects you.
  • To lower the chance of feeling dizzy or passing out, rise slowly if you have been sitting or lying down. Be careful going up and down stairs.
  • If you are allergic to tartrazine, talk with your doctor. Some products have tartrazine.
  • Have your blood pressure checked often. Talk with your doctor.
  • Have blood work checked as you have been told by the doctor. Talk with the doctor.
  • If you are taking a salt substitute that has potassium in it, a potassium-sparing diuretic, or a potassium product, talk with your doctor.
  • If you are on a low-salt or salt-free diet, talk with your doctor.
  • It is rare, but worse chest pain and heart attack can happen after this drug is first started or after the dose is raised. The risk may be greater in people who have very bad heart blood vessel disease. Talk with the doctor.
  • Low white blood cell counts have happened with captopril, a drug like this one. This may lead to more chance of getting an infection. Most of the time, this has happened in people with kidney problems, mainly if they have certain other health problems. Call your doctor right away if you have signs of infection like fever, chills, or sore throat. Talk with your doctor.
  • Talk with your doctor before using OTC products that may raise blood pressure. These include cough or cold drugs, diet pills, stimulants, ibuprofen or like products, and some natural products or aids.
  • Talk with your doctor before you drink alcohol.
  • Be careful in hot weather or while being active. Drink lots of fluids to stop fluid loss.
  • Tell your doctor if you have too much sweat, fluid loss, throwing up, or loose stools. This may lead to low blood pressure.
  • If you are taking lithium, talk with your doctor. You may need to have your blood work checked more closely while you are taking it with this drug.
  • A very bad reaction called angioedema has happened with this drug. Sometimes, this has been deadly. The chance of angioedema may be higher in black patients. Talk with the doctor.
  • If you are 65 or older, use this drug with care. You could have more side effects.
What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?
  • WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
  • Signs of a high potassium level like a heartbeat that does not feel normal; change in thinking clearly and with logic; feeling weak, lightheaded, or dizzy; feel like passing out; numbness or tingling; or shortness of breath.
  • Very bad dizziness or passing out.
  • Cough that does not go away.
  • Chest pain that is new or worse.
  • Swelling in the arms or legs.
  • Very bad belly pain.
  • Very upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Liver problems have happened with drugs like this one. Sometimes, this has been deadly. Call your doctor right away if you have signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.
What are some other side effects of this drug?
  • All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:
  • Dizziness.
  • Cough.
  • These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
  • You may report side effects to your national health agency.
How is this drug best taken?
  • Use this drug as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.
  • Take with or without food.
  • Take this drug at the same time of day.
  • To gain the most benefit, do not miss doses.
  • Keep taking this drug as you have been told by your doctor or other health care provider, even if you feel well.
  • Drink lots of noncaffeine liquids unless told to drink less liquid by your doctor.
What do I do if I miss a dose?
  • Take a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
  • If it has been 12 hours or more since the missed dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.
How do I store and/or throw out this drug?
  • Store at room temperature.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.
General drug facts
  • If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
  • Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else’s drugs.
  • Keep a list of all your drugs (prescription, natural products, vitamins, OTC) with you. Give this list to your doctor.
  • Talk with the doctor before starting any new drug, including prescription or OTC, natural products, or vitamins.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.