Benazepril (Lexi-Drugs)

ALERT: US Boxed Warning
  Fetal toxicity:
Pronunciation

(ben AY ze pril)

Brand Names: US

Lotensin

Brand Names: Canada

Lotensin [DSC]; PMS-Benazepril [DSC]

Dosing: Adult

Hypertension: Oral: Initial: 5 to 10 mg once daily; titrate as needed based on patient response up to 40 mg daily in 1 or 2 divided doses (ACC/AHA [Whelton 2017]).

Dosing: Geriatric

Consider lower initial doses (MacDonald 1993; Reid 1989).

Dosing: Renal Impairment: Adult

CrCl ≥30 mL/minute/1.73m2: No dosage adjustment necessary.

CrCl <30 mL/minute/1.73m2:

Initial: 5 mg once daily; maximum dose: 40 mg/day

Hemodialysis: 25% to 50% of usual dose; supplemental dose is not necessary (Aronoff 2007)

Peritoneal dialysis: 25% to 50% of usual dose; supplemental dose is not necessary (Aronoff 2007)

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling.

Dosing: Pediatric

Hypertension: Note: Dosage must be titrated according to patient’s response; use lowest effective dose

Children ≥6 years and Adolescents: Oral: Initial: 0.2 mg/kg/dose once daily as monotherapy; maximum initial dose: 10 mg/day; maintenance: 0.1-0.6 mg/kg/dose once daily; maximum daily dose: 40 mg/day

Dosing: Renal Impairment: Pediatric

Children and Adolescents: CrCl <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Use is not recommended (insufficient data exists; dose not established)

Use: Labeled Indications

Hypertension: Management of hypertension

Guideline recommendations:The 2017 Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults recommends if monotherapy is warranted, in the absence of comorbidities (eg, cerebrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, etc.), that thiazide-like diuretics or dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers may be preferred options due to improved cardiovascular endpoints (eg, prevention of heart failure and stroke). ACE inhibitors and ARBs are also acceptable for monotherapy. Combination therapy may be required to achieve blood pressure goals and is initially preferred in patients at high risk (stage 2 hypertension or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD] risk ≥10%) (ACC/AHA [Whelton 2017]).

Use: Off-Label: Adult

  Heart failureLevel of Evidence [C, G]

Data from a small, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA classes II to IV) suggest that benazepril may be beneficial for the treatment of patients with this condition Ref. However, specific dosing cannot be recommended. Additional trials are necessary to further define the role of benazepril for the treatment of patients with heart failure.

The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 2013 Heart Failure Guidelines recommend the use of ACE inhibitors, along with other guideline-directed medical therapies, to prevent progression of HF and reduced ejection fraction in asymptomatic patients with or without a history of myocardial infarction (Stage B HF), or to treat those with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction to reduce morbidity and mortality (Stage C HFrEF).

  Non–ST-elevation acute coronary syndromeLevel of Evidence [G]

Based on the ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), an ACE inhibitor should be initiated and continued indefinitely after NSTE-ACS in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40% and in those with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or stable CKD unless contraindicated. Use of an ACE inhibitor may also be useful in all other patients with cardiac or other vascular disease.

  Stable coronary artery diseaseLevel of Evidence [G]

Based on the ACC/AHA guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease, an ACE inhibitor or ARB should be prescribed in all patients with stable ischemic heart disease who also have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, LVEF <40%, or CKD unless contraindicated.

  ST-elevation acute coronary syndromeLevel of Evidence [G]

Based on the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (STE-ACS), an ACE inhibitor should be initiated within the first 24 hours to all patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with anterior location, HF, or LVEF ≤40%, unless contraindicated. It is also reasonable to initiate an ACE inhibitor in all patients with STE-ACS.

Level of Evidence Definitions
  Level of Evidence Scale
Clinical Practice Guidelines

Atrial Fibrillation:

AHA/ACC/HRS, “2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation,” March 2014

Chronic Kidney Disease:

KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease, January 2013

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery:

ACC/AHA, “2011 ACC/AHA Guideline for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery,” November 2011

AHA Scientific Statement, “Secondary Prevention After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery,” February 2015

Diabetes Mellitus:

American Diabetes Association, “Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2018,” January 2018

Diabetes Canada, “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada,” 2018

Heart Failure:

ACC/AHA/HFSA, “2016 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update on New Pharmacological Therapy for Heart Failure,” May 2016

ACC/AHA, “2013 ACC/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure,” June 2013

Hypertension:

“2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults,” November 2017.

AHA/ACC/ASH, “Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Scientific Statement by the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and American Society of Hypertension,” May 2015

“ACC/AHA Expert Consensus Document on Hypertension in the Elderly,” 2011

AHA/ACC/CDC, “AHA/ACC/CDC Science Advisory: An Effective Approach to High Blood Pressure Control” November 2013

ASH/ISH “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in the Community: A Statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension,” January 2014

Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), “2014 Evidence-based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults,” December 2013

“National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents,” May 2005

Ischemic Heart Disease:

ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS, “2014 Focused Update of the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease,” July 2014

ACC/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS, “2012 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease,” November 2012

AHA/ACC, “2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients with Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes,” September 2014

ACC/AHA “2013 guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines,” January 2013

Ischemic Stroke

AHA/ASA “2014 Guidelines for the Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack, May 2014

Prevention:

“ACC/AHA Secondary Prevention and Risk Reduction Therapy for Patients with Coronary and Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: 2011 Update,” November 2011

Surgery:

ACC/AHA, “2014 ACC/AHA Guideline on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Management of Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery,” August 2014

Valvular Heart Disease:

AHA/ACC, “2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients with Valvular Heart Disease,” March 2014

Administration: Pediatric

Oral: May be administered without regard to food.

Storage/Stability

Store at ≤30°C (86°F). Protect from moisture.

Extemporaneously Prepared

A 2 mg/mL oral suspension may be made with tablets. Mix fifteen benazepril 20 mg tablets in an amber polyethylene terephthalate bottle with Ora-Plus 75 mL. Shake for 2 minutes, allow suspension to stand for ≥1 hour, then shake again for at least 1 additional minute. Add Ora-Sweet 75 mL to suspension and shake to disperse. Will make 150 mL of a 2 mg/mL suspension. Label “shake well” and “refrigerate”. Stable for 30 days.

Lotensin prescribing information, Validus Pharmaceuticals LLC, Parsippany, NJ, 2017.

Medication Patient Education with HCAHPS Considerations

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience headache. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of infection, signs of kidney problems (urinary retention, hematuria, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain), signs of high potassium (abnormal heartbeat, confusion, dizziness, passing out, weakness, shortness of breath, numbness or tingling feeling), severe dizziness, passing out, persistent cough, shortness of breath, excessive weight gain, swelling of arms or legs, severe abdominal pain, severe nausea, vomiting, or signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice) (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

Medication Safety Issues
  Sound-alike/look-alike issues:
Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to benazepril, other ACE inhibitors, or any component of the formulation; history of angioedema (with or without prior ACE inhibitor therapy); concomitant use with aliskiren in patients with diabetes mellitus; coadministration with or within 36 hours of switching to or from a neprilysin inhibitor (eg, sacubitril).

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Concomitant use with aliskiren in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2); pregnancy; breastfeeding; rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance (eg, galactosemia, Lapp Lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption).

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Angioedema: Any time during treatment (especially following first dose) angioedema may occur rarely with ACE inhibitors; it may involve the head and neck (potentially compromising airway) or the intestine (presenting with abdominal pain). African Americans and patients with idiopathic or hereditary angioedema may be at an increased risk. Risk may also be increased with concomitant use of mTOR inhibitor (eg, everolimus) therapy or a neprilysin inhibitor (eg, sacubitril). Prolonged frequent monitoring may be required especially if tongue, glottis, or larynx are involved as they are associated with airway obstruction. Patients with a history of airway surgery may have a higher risk of airway obstruction. Aggressive early and appropriate management is critical. Contraindicated in patients with history of angioedema with or without prior ACE inhibitor therapy.

• Cholestatic jaundice: A rare toxicity associated with ACE inhibitors includes cholestatic jaundice, which may progress to fulminant hepatic necrosis; discontinue if marked elevation of hepatic transaminases or jaundice occurs.

• Cough: An ACE inhibitor cough is a dry, hacking, nonproductive one that usually occurs within the first few months of treatment and should generally resolve within 1 to 4 weeks after discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Other causes of cough should be considered (eg, pulmonary congestion in patients with heart failure) and excluded prior to discontinuation.

• Hematologic effects: Another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has been associated with neutropenia with myeloid hypoplasia and agranulocytosis; anemia and thrombocytopenia have also occurred. Patients with renal impairment are at high risk of developing neutropenia. Patients with both renal impairment and collagen vascular disease (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus) are at an even higher risk of developing neutropenia. Periodically monitor CBC with differential in these patients.

• Hyperkalemia: May occur with ACE inhibitors; risk factors include renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium containing salts. Use cautiously, if at all, with these agents and monitor potassium periodically.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions can occur with ACE inhibitors. Severe anaphylactoid reactions may be seen during hemodialysis (eg, CVVHD) with high-flux dialysis membranes (eg, AN69), and rarely, during low density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate cellulose. Rare cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients undergoing sensitization treatment with hymenoptera (bee, wasp) venom while receiving ACE inhibitors.

• Hypotension/syncope: Symptomatic hypotension with or without syncope can occur with ACE inhibitors (usually with the first several doses); effects are most often observed in volume-depleted patients; correct volume depletion prior to initiation; close monitoring of patient is required especially with initial dosing and dosing increases; blood pressure must be lowered at a rate appropriate for the patient’s clinical condition. Although dose reduction may be necessary, hypotension is not a reason for discontinuation of future ACE inhibitor use especially in patients with heart failure where a reduction in systolic blood pressure is a desirable observation.

• Renal function deterioration: May be associated with deterioration of renal function and/or increases in BUN and serum creatinine, particularly in patients with low renal blood flow (eg, renal artery stenosis, heart failure) whose GFR is dependent on efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by angiotensin II; deterioration may result in oliguria, acute renal failure, and progressive azotemia. Small increases in serum creatinine may occur following initiation; consider discontinuation only in patients with progressive and/or significant deterioration in renal function (Bakris 2000).

Disease-related concerns:

• Aortic stenosis: Use with caution in patients with severe aortic stenosis; may reduce coronary perfusion resulting in ischemia.

• Ascites: Avoid use in patients with ascites due to cirrhosis or refractory ascites; if use cannot be avoided in patients with ascites due to cirrhosis, monitor blood pressure and renal function carefully to avoid rapid development of renal failure (AASLD [Runyon 2012]).

• Cardiovascular disease: Initiation of therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease warrants close observation due to the potential consequences posed by falling blood pressure (eg, MI, stroke). Fluid replacement, if needed, may restore blood pressure; therapy may then be resumed. Discontinue therapy in patients whose hypotension recurs.

• Collagen vascular disease: Use with caution in patients with collagen vascular disease especially with concomitant renal impairment; may be at increased risk for hematologic toxicity.

• Diabetes: Use with caution in patients with diabetes receiving insulin or oral antidiabetic agents; may be at increased risk for episodes of hypoglycemia.

• Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with outflow tract obstruction: Use with caution in patients with HCM and outflow tract obstruction since reduction in afterload may worsen symptoms associated with this condition (ACC/AHA [Gersh 2011]).

• Renal artery stenosis: Use with caution in patients with unstented unilateral/bilateral renal artery stenosis. When unstented bilateral renal artery stenosis is present, use is generally avoided due to the elevated risk of deterioration in renal function unless possible benefits outweigh risks.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in preexisting renal insufficiency; dosage adjustment may be needed. Avoid rapid dosage escalation which may lead to further renal impairment.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Black patients: ACE inhibitors effectiveness is less in black patients than in non-blacks. In addition, ACE inhibitors cause a higher rate of angioedema in black than in non-black patients.

• Pregnancy: [US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected.

• Surgical patients: In patients on chronic ACE inhibitor therapy, intraoperative hypotension may occur with induction and maintenance of general anesthesia; use with caution before, during, or immediately after major surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass, intraoperative blood loss, or vasodilating anesthesia increases endogenous renin release. Use of ACE inhibitors perioperatively will blunt angiotensin II formation and may result in hypotension. However, discontinuation of therapy prior to surgery is controversial. If continued preoperatively, avoidance of hypotensive agents during surgery is prudent (Hillis 2011). Based on current research and clinical guidelines in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, continuing ACE inhibitors is reasonable in the perioperative period. If ACE inhibitors are held before surgery, it is reasonable to restart postoperatively as soon as clinically feasible (ACC/AHA [Fleisher 2014]).

Geriatric Considerations

Due to frequent decreases in glomerular filtration (also CrCl) with aging, elderly patients may have exaggerated responses to ACE inhibitors; differences in clinical response due to hepatic changes are not observed. ACE inhibitors may be preferred agents in elderly patients with congestive heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Diabetic proteinuria is reduced and insulin sensitivity is enhanced. In general, the side effect profile is favorable in elderly and causes little or no CNS confusion; use lowest dose recommendations initially. Many elderly may be volume depleted due to diuretic use and/or blunted thirst reflex resulting in inadequate fluid intake.

Benazepril and benazeprilat are substantially excreted by the kidney. Because elderly are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

The AHA/ACC/ASH 2015 scientific statement on the treatment of hypertension in patients with CAD warns to use caution to avoid decreases in DBP <60 mm Hg especially in patients >60 years of age since reduced coronary perfusion may occur. When lowering SBP in older hypertensive patients with wide pulse pressures, very low DBP values (<60 mm Hg) may result. In patients with obstructive CAD, clinicians should lower blood pressure slowly and carefully monitor for any untoward signs or symptoms, especially those resulting from myocardial ischemia and worsening heart failure (AHA/ACC/ASH [Rosendorff 2015]).

Warnings: Additional Pediatric Considerations

In pediatric patients, an isolated dry hacking cough lasting >3 weeks was reported in seven of 42 pediatric patients (17%) receiving ACE inhibitors (von Vigier, 2000); a review of pediatric randomized, controlled ACE inhibitor trials reported a lower incidence of 3.2%; a higher incidence of cough has been reported in pediatric patients receiving benazepril (15.2%); however, this may have resulted from differences in study methodology (Baker-Smith, 2010).

Pregnancy Considerations

[US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected.

Benazepril crosses the placenta. Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system are associated with oligohydramnios. Oligohydramnios, due to decreased fetal renal function, may lead to fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal malformations. Their use in pregnancy is also associated with anuria, hypotension, renal failure, skull hypoplasia, and death in the fetus/neonate. Teratogenic effects may occur following maternal use of an ACE inhibitor during the first trimester, although this finding may be confounded by maternal disease. Because adverse fetal events are well documented with exposure later in pregnancy, ACE inhibitor use in pregnant women is not recommended (Seely 2014; Weber 2014). Infants exposed to an ACE inhibitor in utero should be monitored for hyperkalemia, hypotension, and oliguria. Oligohydramnios may not appear until after irreversible fetal injury has occurred. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required to reverse hypotension or improve renal function, although data related to the effectiveness in neonates is limited.

Chronic maternal hypertension itself is also associated with adverse events in the fetus/infant and mother. ACE inhibitors are not recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated hypertension in pregnancy (ACOG 2013) and they are specifically contraindicated for the treatment of hypertension and chronic heart failure during pregnancy by some guidelines (Regitz-Zagrosek 2011). In addition, ACE inhibitors should generally be avoided in women of reproductive age (ACOG 2013). If treatment for hypertension or chronic heart failure in pregnancy is needed, other agents should be used (ACOG 2013; Regitz-Zagrosek 2011).

Breast-Feeding Considerations

Benazepril and benazeprilat are present in breast milk.

Some guidelines consider benazepril to be acceptable for use in breastfeeding women. Monitoring of the breastfeeding child’s weight for the first 4 weeks is recommended (Regitz-Zagrosek 2011).

Lexicomp Pregnancy & Lactation, In-Depth
Briggs’ Drugs in Pregnancy & Lactation
Adverse Reactions

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Hypotension

Central nervous system: Headache (6%), dizziness (4%), drowsiness (2%), orthostatic dizziness (2%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Alopecia, angioedema, anxiety, arthralgia, arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, constipation, decreased libido, dermatitis, diaphoresis, dyspnea, ECG changes, eosinophilia, fatigue, flushing, gastritis, hemolytic anemia, hypersensitivity, hypertonia, hyponatremia, impotence, increased liver enzymes, increased serum bilirubin, increased serum glucose, increased uric acid, infection, insomnia, melena, myalgia, nausea, nervousness, pancreatitis, paresthesia, pemphigus, proteinuria, pruritus, sinusitis, skin photosensitivity, skin rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, thrombocytopenia, urinary frequency, urinary tract infection, vomiting, weakness

Allergy and Idiosyncratic Reactions
Metabolism/Transport Effects

None known.

Drug Interactions 

Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Aliskiren: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Management: Aliskiren use with ACEIs or ARBs in patients with diabetes is contraindicated. Combined use in other patients should be avoided, particularly when CrCl is less than 60 mL/min. If combined, monitor potassium, creatinine, and blood pressure closely. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Allopurinol: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the potential for allergic or hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When amifostine is used at chemotherapy doses, blood pressure lowering medications should be withheld for 24 hours prior to amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be withheld, amifostine should not be administered. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Amphetamines: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Angiotensin II: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin II. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Management: In US labeling, use of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended. It is not clear if any other combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB would be any safer. Consider alternatives to the combination when possible. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]).Risk C: Monitor therapy

Aprotinin: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

AzaTHIOprine: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of AzaTHIOprine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Benperidol: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brigatinib: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Brigatinib may enhance the bradycardic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bromperidol: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Bromperidol. Bromperidol may diminish the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk X: Avoid combination

Dapoxetine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dexmethylphenidate: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Drospirenone: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Eplerenone: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Everolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ferric Gluconate: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Gluconate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex. Specifically, the risk for angioedema or allergic reactions may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Gelatin (Succinylated): Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Gelatin (Succinylated). Specifically, the risk of a paradoxical hypotensive reaction may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Gold Sodium Thiomalate: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Gold Sodium Thiomalate. An increased risk of nitritoid reactions has been appreciated. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract): Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Specifically, ACE inhibitors may increase the risk of severe allergic reaction to Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Heparin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Heparins (Low Molecular Weight): May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

HydroCHLOROthiazide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Benazepril. HydroCHLOROthiazide may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Benazepril. Benazepril may decrease the serum concentration of HydroCHLOROthiazide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Icatibant: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Iron Dextran Complex: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iron Dextran Complex. Specifically, patients receiving an ACE inhibitor may be at an increased risk for anaphylactic-type reactions. Management: Follow iron dextran recommendations closely regarding both having resuscitation equipment and trained personnel on-hand prior to iron dextran administration and the use of a test dose prior to the first therapeutic dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lanthanum: May decrease the serum concentration of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Management: Administer angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at least two hours before or after lanthanum. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Levodopa-Containing Products: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa-Containing Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lithium: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. Management: Lithium dosage reductions will likely be needed following the addition of an ACE inhibitor. Monitor patient response to lithium closely following addition or discontinuation of concurrent ACE inhibitor treatment. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Loop Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Loop Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lormetazepam: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Naftopidil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicergoline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nitroprusside: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Nitroprusside. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pholcodine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Pholcodine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Potassium Salts: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pregabalin: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Pregabalin. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Quinagolide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Racecadotril: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk for angioedema may be increased with this combination. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sacubitril: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sacubitril. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased with this combination.Risk X: Avoid combination

Salicylates: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sodium Phosphates: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with ACEIs, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function closely. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Temsirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

TiZANidine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tolvaptan: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Trimethoprim: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Test Interactions

May lead to false-negative aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) (Funder 2016)

Monitoring Parameters

Blood pressure; BUN, serum creatinine and potassium; if patient has collagen vascular disease and/or renal impairment, periodically monitor CBC with differential.

Hypertension: The 2017 Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults (ACC/AHA [Whelton 2017]):

Confirmed hypertension and known CVD or 10-year ASCVD risk ≥10%: Target blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg is recommended

Confirmed hypertension without markers of increased ASCVD risk: Target blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg may be reasonable

Diabetes and hypertension: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (ADA 2018):

Patients ≥18 to ≤65 years of age: Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg

Patients ≥18 to ≤65 years of age and at high risk of cardiovascular disease: Goal of therapy is SBP <130 mm Hg and DBP <80 mm Hg (if can be achieved without undue treatment burden)

Patients ≥65 years of age (healthy or complex/intermediate health): Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg

Patients ≥65 years of age (very complex/poor health): Goal of therapy is SBP <150 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg

Advanced Practitioners Physical Assessment/Monitoring

Obtain BUN, serum creatinine, electrolytes, and CBC with differential (patients with renal impairment or collagen vascular disease). Monitor blood pressure. Assess other medicines patient may be taking; alternate therapy or dosage adjustments may be needed. Assess for signs of angioedema. Assess pregnancy status and ensure proper use of birth control prior to therapy.

Nursing Physical Assessment/Monitoring

Check ordered labs and report abnormalities. Monitor blood pressure. Monitor for signs of angioedema. Instruct women of childbearing age to notify provider immediately for pregnancy.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral, as hydrochloride:

Lotensin: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg

Generic: 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg

Dosage Forms: Canada

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Tablet, Oral, as hydrochloride:

Lotensin: 5 mg [DSC], 20 mg [DSC]

Generic: 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg

Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification
  • C09AA07
Generic Available (US)

Yes

Pricing: US

Tablets (Benazepril HCl Oral)

5 mg (per each): $1.01 – $1.05

10 mg (per each): $0.95 – $1.05

20 mg (per each): $0.95 – $1.05

40 mg (per each): $1.02 – $1.05

Tablets (Lotensin Oral)

10 mg (per each): $2.30

20 mg (per each): $2.30

40 mg (per each): $2.30

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer’s AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Mechanism of Action

Competitive inhibition of angiotensin I being converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, through the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, with resultant lower levels of angiotensin II which causes an increase in plasma renin activity and a reduction in aldosterone secretion

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics

Reduction in plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity:

Onset of action: Peak effect: 1 to 2 hours after 2 to 20 mg dose (Nussberger 1987; Nussberger 1989)

Duration: >90% inhibition for 24 hours after 5 to 20 mg dose (Balfour 1991)

Reduction in blood pressure:

Peak effect: Single dose: 2 to 4 hours; Continuous therapy: 2 weeks (Fogari 1990)

Absorption: Rapid (37%); food does not alter significantly; metabolite (benazeprilat) itself unsuitable for oral administration due to poor absorption

Distribution: Vd: ~8.7 L (Balfour 1991)

Protein binding:

Benazepril: ~97%

Benazeprilat: ~95%

Metabolism: Rapidly and extensively hepatic to its active metabolite, benazeprilat, via enzymatic hydrolysis; extensive first-pass effect

Half-life elimination: Benazeprilat: Effective: 10 to 11 hours; Terminal: Children: 5 hours, Adults: 22 hours

Time to peak:

Parent drug: 0.5 to 1 hour

Active metabolite (benazeprilat): Fasting: 1 to 2 hours; Nonfasting: 2 to 4 hours

Excretion:

Urine (trace amounts as benazepril; 20% as benazeprilat; 12% as other metabolites)

Clearance: Nonrenal clearance (ie, biliary, metabolic) appears to contribute to the elimination of benazeprilat (11% to 12%), particularly patients with severe renal impairment; hepatic clearance is the main elimination route of unchanged benazepril

Dialysis: ~6% of metabolite removed within 4 hours of dialysis following 10 mg of benazepril administered 2 hours prior to procedure; parent compound not found in dialysate

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics: Additional Considerations

Renal function impairment: In those with CrCl 30 mL/minute or less, peak benazeprilat levels and initial half-life increase and time to steady state may be delayed.

Local Anesthetic/Vasoconstrictor Precautions

No information available to require special precautions

Effects on Dental Treatment

Key adverse event(s) related to dental treatment: Patients may experience orthostatic hypotension as they stand up after treatment; especially if lying in dental chair for extended periods of time. Use caution with sudden changes in position during and after dental treatment.

An angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor cough is a dry, hacking, nonproductive cough that can potentially interfere with longer dental procedures if patient has this side effect.

Effects on Bleeding

No information available to require special precautions

Index Terms

Benazepril HCl; Benazepril Hydrochloride

FDA Approval Date
June 25, 1991
References

ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group, “Major Outcomes in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients Randomized to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor or Calcium Channel Blocker vs Diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT),” JAMA, 2002, 288(23):2981-97.[PubMed 12479763]

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy. Hypertension in pregnancy. Report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(5):1122-1131.[PubMed 24150027 ]

American Diabetes Association (ADA). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(suppl 1):S1-S159. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41/Supplement_1. Accessed June 18, 2018.

Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, et al; American College of Cardiology; American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions; Society of Thoracic Surgeons; American Association for Clinical Chemistry. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines [published correction appears in J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(24):2713-2714]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(24):e139-e228. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.09.017.[PubMed 25260718]

Antman EM, Anbe SC, Alpert JS, et al, “ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction – Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 1999 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction),” Circulation, 2004, 110(5):588-636. Available at http://www.circulationaha.org/cgi/content/full/110/5/588[PubMed 15289388]

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Chase MP, Fiarman GS, Scholz FJ, et al, “Angioedema of the Small Bowel Due to an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor,” J Clin Gastroenterol, 2000, 31(3):254-7.[PubMed 11034011]

Colfer HT, Ribner HS, Gradman A, et al. Effects of once-daily benazepril therapy on exercise tolerance and manifestations of chronic congestive heart failure.Am J Cardiol, 1992;70(3):354-8.[PubMed 1632402]

Cooper WO, Hernandez-Diaz S, Arbogast PG, et al, “Major Congenital Malformations After First-Trimester Exposure to ACE Inhibitors,” N Engl J Med, 2006, 354(23):2443-51.[PubMed 16760444]

Fihn SD, Blankenship JC, Alexander KP, et al. 2014 ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS focused update of the guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation. 2014;130(19):1749-1767. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000095.[PubMed 25070666]

Fihn SD, Gardin JM, Abrams J, et al, “2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American College of Physicians, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons,” Circulation, 2012, 126(25):3097-137.[PubMed 23166211]

Fleisher LA, Fleischmann KE, Auerbach AD, et al. 2014 ACC/AHA guideline on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and management of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;130(24):2215-2245. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000105.[PubMed 25085962]

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Funder JW, Carey RM, Mantero F, et al. The management of primary aldosteronism: case detection, diagnosis, and treatment: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(5):1889-1916. doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-4061.[PubMed 26934393]

Gersh BJ, Maron BJ, Bonow RO, et al; American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; American Association for Thoracic Surgery; American Society of Echocardiography; American Society of Nuclear Cardiology; Heart Failure Society of America; Heart Rhythm Society; Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions; Society of Thoracic Surgeons. 2011 ACCF/AHA guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2011;124(24):e783-e831.[PubMed 22068434]

Go AS, Bauman M, King SM, et al. An effective approach to high blood pressure control: a science advisory from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [published online November 15, 2013]. Hypertension.[PubMed 24243703]

Hillis LD, Smith PK, Anderson JL, et al, “2011 ACCF/AHA Guideline for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines,” Circulation, 2011, 124(23):2610-42.[PubMed 22064600]

James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) [published correction appears in JAMA. 2014;311(17):1809]. JAMA. 2014;311(5):507-520.[PubMed 24352797]

January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society [published online March 28, 2014]. Circulation.[PubMed 24682347]

Kernan WN, Ovbiagele B, Black HR, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, and Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association [published correction appears in Stroke. 2015;46(2):e54]. Stroke. 2014;45(7):2160-2236. doi: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000024.[PubMed 24788967]

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group, “KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease,”Kidney Inter, Suppl, 2013, 3:1-150.

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Brand Names: International

Benace (IN); Boncordin (AR); Cibacen (AE, AT, BB, BF, BJ, BM, BS, BZ, CH, CI, CY, DE, DK, ES, ET, GH, GM, GN, GR, GY, ID, IE, IL, IQ, IR, IT, JM, JO, KE, KR, KW, LB, LR, LU, LY, MA, ML, MR, MU, MW, NE, NG, NL, NZ, OM, PH, PT, RO, SA, SC, SD, SE, SL, SN, SR, SY, TN, TR, TT, TW, TZ, UG, VN, YE, ZA, ZM, ZW); Cibacene (FR); Lotensin (BB, BR, CN, HN, HU, MX, PE, PL, RU); Sotrel (TW); Unitense (EG); Xbenzi (EG); Zaprace (CN)

Benazepril (Patient Education – Adult Medication)
You must carefully read the “Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer” below in order to understand and correctly use this information
Pronunciation

(ben AY ze pril)

Brand Names: US

Lotensin

Brand Names: Canada

Lotensin

Warning
  • Do not take if you are pregnant. Use during pregnancy may cause birth defects or loss of the unborn baby. If you get pregnant or plan on getting pregnant while taking this drug, call your doctor right away.
What is this drug used for?
  • It is used to treat high blood pressure.
  • It may be given to you for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.
What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take this drug?
  • For all patients taking this drug:
  • If you have an allergy to benazepril or any other part of this drug.
  • If you are allergic to any drugs like this one, any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had, like rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs.
  • If you have ever had a very bad or life-threatening reaction called angioedema. Signs may be swelling of the hands, face, lips, eyes, tongue, or throat; trouble breathing; trouble swallowing; unusual hoarseness.
  • If you have kidney disease.
  • If you are taking a drug that has aliskiren in it and you also have high blood sugar (diabetes) or kidney problems. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if a drug you take has aliskiren in it.
  • If you have taken a drug that has sacubitril in it in the last 36 hours.
  • Children:
  • If your child is younger than 6 years of age. Do not give this drug to a child younger than 6 years of age.
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this drug.
  • Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take this drug with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.
What are some things I need to know or do while I take this drug?
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take this drug. This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • Avoid driving and doing other tasks or actions that call for you to be alert until you see how this drug affects you.
  • To lower the chance of feeling dizzy or passing out, rise slowly if you have been sitting or lying down. Be careful going up and down stairs.
  • If you have high blood sugar (diabetes), you will need to watch your blood sugar closely.
  • Have your blood pressure checked often. Talk with your doctor.
  • Have blood work checked as you have been told by the doctor. Talk with the doctor.
  • If you are on a low-salt or salt-free diet, talk with your doctor.
  • If you are taking a salt substitute that has potassium in it, a potassium-sparing diuretic, or a potassium product, talk with your doctor.
  • Low white blood cell counts have happened with captopril, a drug like this one. This may lead to more chance of getting an infection. Most of the time, this has happened in people with kidney problems, mainly if they have certain other health problems. Call your doctor right away if you have signs of infection like fever, chills, or sore throat. Talk with your doctor.
  • If you are taking this drug and have high blood pressure, talk with your doctor before using OTC products that may raise blood pressure. These include cough or cold drugs, diet pills, stimulants, ibuprofen or like products, and some natural products or aids.
  • Talk with your doctor before you drink alcohol.
  • Be careful in hot weather or while being active. Drink lots of fluids to stop fluid loss.
  • Tell your doctor if you have too much sweat, fluid loss, throwing up, or loose stools. This may lead to low blood pressure.
  • If you are taking lithium, talk with your doctor. You may need to have your blood work checked more closely while you are taking it with this drug.
  • This drug may not work as well in black patients. Talk with the doctor.
  • A very bad reaction called angioedema has happened with this drug. Sometimes, this has been deadly. The chance of angioedema may be higher in black patients. Talk with the doctor.
  • If you are 65 or older, use this drug with care. You could have more side effects.
  • Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding. You will need to talk about any risks to your baby.
What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?
  • WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
  • Signs of a high potassium level like a heartbeat that does not feel normal; change in thinking clearly and with logic; feeling weak, lightheaded, or dizzy; feel like passing out; numbness or tingling; or shortness of breath.
  • Very bad dizziness or passing out.
  • Cough that does not go away.
  • Shortness of breath, a big weight gain, or swelling in the arms or legs.
  • Very bad belly pain.
  • Very upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Liver problems have happened with drugs like this one. Sometimes, this has been deadly. Call your doctor right away if you have signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.
What are some other side effects of this drug?
  • All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:
  • Headache.
  • Cough.
  • These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
  • You may report side effects to your national health agency.
How is this drug best taken?
  • Use this drug as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.
  • Take with or without food.
  • Take this drug at the same time of day.
  • Keep taking this drug as you have been told by your doctor or other health care provider, even if you feel well.
  • To gain the most benefit, do not miss doses.
  • Drink lots of noncaffeine liquids unless told to drink less liquid by your doctor.
  • A liquid (suspension) can be made if you cannot swallow pills. Talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
  • If a liquid (suspension) is made, shake well before use.
  • Measure liquid doses carefully. Use the measuring device that comes with this drug. If there is none, ask the pharmacist for a device to measure this drug.
What do I do if I miss a dose?
  • Take a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
  • If it is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.
How do I store and/or throw out this drug?
  • Store at room temperature.
  • Protect from heat.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
  • If a liquid (suspension) is made from the tablets, store in a refrigerator. Do not freeze. Throw away any part not used after 30 days.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.
General drug facts
  • If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
  • Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else’s drugs.
  • Keep a list of all your drugs (prescription, natural products, vitamins, OTC) with you. Give this list to your doctor.
  • Talk with the doctor before starting any new drug, including prescription or OTC, natural products, or vitamins.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.
Benazepril (Patient Education – Pediatric Medication)
You must carefully read the “Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer” below in order to understand and correctly use this information
Pronunciation

(ben AY ze pril)

Brand Names: US

Lotensin

Brand Names: Canada

Lotensin

Warning
  • If your child is or may be pregnant:
  • Do not give this drug to your child if she is pregnant. Use during pregnancy may cause birth defects or loss of the unborn baby. If your child gets pregnant or plans on getting pregnant while taking this drug, call the doctor right away.
What is this drug used for?
  • It is used to treat high blood pressure.
  • It may be given to your child for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.
What do I need to tell the doctor BEFORE my child takes this drug?
  • If your child has an allergy to this drug or any part of this drug.
  • If your child is allergic to any drugs like this one or any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell the doctor about the allergy and what signs your child had, like rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs.
  • If your child has ever had a very bad or life-threatening reaction called angioedema. Signs may be swelling of the hands, face, lips, eyes, tongue, or throat; trouble breathing; trouble swallowing; unusual hoarseness.
  • If your child has kidney disease.
  • If your child is taking a drug that has aliskiren in it and your child also has high blood sugar (diabetes) or kidney problems. Check with the doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if a drug your child takes has aliskiren in it.
  • If your child has taken a drug that has sacubitril in it in the last 36 hours.
  • If your child is younger than 6 years of age. Do not give this drug to a child younger than 6 years of age.
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this drug.
  • Tell the doctor and pharmacist about all of your child’s drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for your child to take this drug with all of his/her drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug your child takes without checking with the doctor.
What are some things I need to know or do while my child takes this drug?
  • Tell all of your child’s health care providers that your child is taking this drug. This includes your child’s doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • Have your child avoid tasks or actions that call for alertness until you see how this drug affects your child. These are things like riding a bike, playing sports, or using items such as scissors, lawnmowers, electric scooters, toy cars, or motorized vehicles.
  • To lower the chance of feeling dizzy or passing out, have your child rise slowly if your child has been sitting or lying down. Have your child be careful going up and down stairs.
  • Have your child’s blood pressure checked often. Talk with your child’s doctor.
  • If your child has high blood sugar (diabetes), you will need to watch his/her blood sugar closely.
  • Have your child’s blood work checked often. Talk with your child’s doctor.
  • If your child is on a low-salt or salt-free diet, talk with your child’s doctor.
  • If your child is taking a salt substitute that has potassium in it, a potassium-sparing diuretic, or a potassium product, talk with your child’s doctor.
  • Low white blood cell counts have happened with captopril, a drug like this one. This may lead to more chance of getting an infection. Most of the time, this has happened in people with kidney problems, mainly if they have certain other health problems. Call the doctor right away if your child has signs of infection like fever, chills, or sore throat. Talk with the doctor.
  • If your child is taking this drug and has high blood pressure, talk with the doctor before giving OTC products that may raise blood pressure. These include cough or cold drugs, diet pills, stimulants, ibuprofen or like products, and some natural products or aids.
  • Alcohol may interact with this drug. Be sure your child does not drink alcohol.
  • Have your child be careful in hot weather or while your child is being active. Have your child drink lots of fluids to stop fluid loss.
  • Tell the doctor if your child has too much sweat, fluid loss, throwing up, or diarrhea. This may lead to low blood pressure.
  • If your child is taking lithium, talk with the doctor. Your child may need to have blood work checked more closely while taking it with this drug.
  • This drug may not work as well in black patients. Talk with the doctor.
  • A very bad reaction called angioedema has happened with this drug. Sometimes, this has been deadly. The chance of angioedema may be higher in black patients. Talk with the doctor.
  • If your child is breast-feeding a baby:
  • Tell the doctor if your child is breast-feeding a baby. You will need to talk about any risks to the baby.
What are some side effects that I need to call my child’s doctor about right away?
  • WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your child’s doctor or get medical help right away if your child has any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
  • Signs of a high potassium level like a heartbeat that does not feel normal; change in thinking clearly and with logic; feeling weak, lightheaded, or dizzy; feel like passing out; numbness or tingling; or shortness of breath.
  • Very bad dizziness or passing out.
  • Cough that does not go away.
  • Shortness of breath, a big weight gain, or swelling in the arms or legs.
  • Very bad belly pain.
  • Very upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Liver problems have happened with drugs like this one. Sometimes, this has been deadly. Call the doctor right away if your child has signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.
What are some other side effects of this drug?
  • All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your child’s doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother your child or do not go away:
  • Headache.
  • Cough.
  • These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your child’s doctor. Call your child’s doctor for medical advice about side effects.
  • You may report side effects to your national health agency.
How is this drug best given?
  • Give this drug as ordered by your child’s doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.
  • Give this drug with or without food.
  • Give this drug at the same time of day.
  • To gain the most benefit, do not miss giving your child doses.
  • Keep giving this drug to your child as you have been told by your child’s doctor or other health care provider, even if your child feels well.
  • Have your child drink lots of noncaffeine liquids every day unless told to drink less liquid by your child’s doctor.
  • A liquid (suspension) can be made if your child cannot swallow pills. Talk with your child’s doctor or pharmacist.
  • If a liquid (suspension) is made, shake well before use.
  • Measure liquid doses carefully. Use the measuring device that comes with this drug. If there is none, ask the pharmacist for a device to measure this drug.
What do I do if my child misses a dose?
  • Give a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
  • If it is close to the time for your child’s next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your child’s normal time.
  • Do not give 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.
How do I store and/or throw out this drug?
  • Store at room temperature.
  • Protect from heat.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
  • If a liquid (suspension) is made from the tablets, store in a refrigerator. Do not freeze. Throw away any part not used after 30 days.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.
General drug facts
  • If your child’s symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your child’s doctor.
  • Do not share your child’s drug with others and do not give anyone else’s drug to your child.
  • Keep a list of all your child’s drugs (prescription, natural products, vitamins, OTC) with you. Give this list to your child’s doctor.
  • Talk with your child’s doctor before giving your child any new drug, including prescription or OTC, natural products, or vitamins.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your child’s doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.