Enalapril (Lexi-Drugs)

ALERT: US Boxed Warning
  Fetal toxicity:
Pronunciation

(e NAL a pril)

Brand Names: US

Epaned; Vasotec

Brand Names: Canada

ACT Enalapril; APO-Enalapril; MYLAN-Enalapril; NOVO-Enalapril; PMS-Enalapril [DSC]; PRO-Enalapril-10; PRO-Enalapril-2.5; PRO-Enalapril-20; PRO-Enalapril-5; RAN-Enalapril; RIVA-Enalapril; SANDOZ Enalapril; SIG-Enalapril [DSC]; TARO-Enalapril; TEVA-Enalapril; Vasotec

Dosing: Adult

Use lower listed initial dose in patients with hyponatremia, hypovolemia, severe HF, decreased renal function, or in those receiving diuretics.

Asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction: Oral: Initial: 2.5 mg twice daily, titrated as tolerated to target dose of 10 mg twice daily (maximum: 20 mg/day).

Heart failure: Oral: Initial: 2.5 mg twice daily (maximum: 40 mg/day); titrate slowly at 1- to 2-week intervals. Target dose: 10 to 20 mg twice daily (ACC/AHA [Yancy 2013]).

Hypertension: Oral: Initial: 5 mg once daily; titrate at 1- to 2-week intervals as needed based on patient response up to 40 mg daily in 1 or 2 divided doses (ACC/AHA [Whelton 2017]); maximum dose: 40 mg/day.

Conversion from IV enalaprilat to oral enalapril therapy: If not concurrently receiving diuretics, initiate enalapril 5 mg once daily; if concurrently receiving diuretics and responding to enalaprilat 0.625 mg IV every 6 hours, initiate with enalapril 2.5 mg once daily; subsequent titration as needed.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment: Adult

Manufacturer’s labeling:

CrCl >30 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary.

CrCl ≤30 mL/minute: Initial: 2.5 mg once daily; titrate upward as needed (maximum: 40 mg/day).

HF patients with serum creatinine >1.6 mg/dL: Initial: 2.5 mg once daily, increasing to twice daily as needed. Increase further in increments of 2.5 mg/dose at ≥4-day intervals to a maximum dose of 40 mg/day.

Hemodialysis: Moderately dialyzable (20% to 50%): Initial: 2.5 mg after dialysis on dialysis days; adjust dose on nondialysis days depending on blood pressure response.

Conversion from IV enalaprilat to oral enalapril therapy:

CrCl >30 mL/minute: May initiate enalapril 5 mg once daily.

CrCl ≤30 mL/minute: May initiate enalapril 2.5 mg once daily.

Alternate recommendations (Aronoff 2007):

GFR >50 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary

GFR 10 to 50 mL/minute: Administer 50% to 100% of usual dose.

GFR <10 mL/minute: Administer 25% of usual dose.

Peritoneal dialysis: Administer 25% of usual dose.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

No dosage adjustment necessary. Hydrolysis of enalapril to enalaprilat may be delayed and/or impaired in patients with severe hepatic impairment, but the pharmacodynamic effects of the drug do not appear to be significantly altered.

Dosing: Pediatric

Note: Use lower listed initial dose in patients with hyponatremia, hypovolemia, severe CHF, decreased renal function, or in those receiving diuretics.

Heart failure: Limited data available: Infants, Children and Adolescents: Oral: Initial: 0.1 mg/kg/day in 1 to 2 divided doses; increase as required over 2 weeks to maximum of 0.5 mg/kg/day; mean dose required for CHF improvement in 39 children (age range: 9 days to 17 years) was 0.36 mg/kg/day; select individuals have been treated with doses up to 0.94 mg/kg/day (Leversha 1994; Momma 2006)

Hypertension: Infants, Children and Adolescents: Oral: Initial: 0.08 mg/kg/dose once daily (maximum dose: 5 mg); adjust dose according to blood pressure readings; doses >0.58 mg/kg (or >40 mg) have not been studied

Proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome: Limited data available: Oral:

Fixed dosing: Children ≥7 years and Adolescents: 2.5 to 5 mg/day was reported in a retrospective study in normotensive pediatric patients as either monotherapy (n=17; mean age: 13.7 years; range: 8 to 17 years) or with prednisone (n=11; mean age: 12.6 years; range: 7 to 16 years); significant decrease in proteinuria (with or without nephrotic syndrome) occurred; no significant change in blood pressure was observed (Sasinka 1999); a case series of three adolescents with sickle anemia nephropathy reported an initial dose of 5 mg/day; one patient required an increase to 7.5 mg/day (Fitzhugh 2005)

Weight-directed dosing: Children and Adolescents: Initial: 0.2 mg/kg/day; titrate to response at 4- to 12-week intervals; range: 0.2 to 0.6 mg/kg/day; maximum daily dose: 20 mg/day; a crossover dose comparison trial showed effects on proteinuria were dose-dependent (Bagga 2004; Chandar 2007; Delucchi 2000; Lama 2000; White 2003); if combined with other angiotensin blockade (ARB), lower doses have been reported (0.1 to 0.16 mg/kg/day) (Chandar 2007)

Dosing: Renal Impairment: Pediatric

Infants, Children, and Adolescents:

Manufacturer’s labeling: Use in infants, children, and adolescents ≤16 years of age with GFR <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2 is not recommended; no dosing data available in this population

Alternate recommendations (Aronoff 2007):

GFR >50 mL/minute/1.73 m2: No dosage adjustment necessary

GFR 10 to 50 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Administer 75% of usual dose

GFR <10 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Administer 50% of usual dose

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Pediatric

No dosage adjustment necessary. Hydrolysis of enalapril to enalaprilat may be delayed and/or impaired in patients with severe hepatic impairment, but the pharmacodynamic effects of the drug do not appear to be significantly altered.

Use: Labeled Indications

Asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction: To decrease the rate of development of overt heart failure (HF) and decrease the incidence of hospitalization for HF in clinically stable asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤35%)

Heart Failure: Treatment of symptomatic HF

Guideline recommendations: The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 2013 Heart Failure Guidelines recommend the use of ACE inhibitors, along with other guideline-directed medical therapies, to prevent progression of heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction in asymptomatic patients with or without a history of myocardial infarction (Stage B HF), or to treat those with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction to reduce morbidity and mortality (Stage C HFrEF).

Hypertension: Management of hypertension

Guideline recommendations: The 2017 Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults recommends if monotherapy is warranted, in the absence of comorbidities (eg, cerebrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, etc.), that thiazide-like diuretics or dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers may be preferred options due to improved cardiovascular endpoints (eg, prevention of heart failure and stroke). ACE inhibitors and ARBs are also acceptable for monotherapy. Combination therapy may be required to achieve blood pressure goals and is initially preferred in patients at high risk (stage 2 hypertension or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD] risk ≥10%) (ACC/AHA [Whelton 2017]).

Use: Off-Label: Adult

  Non–ST-elevation acute coronary syndromeLevel of Evidence [G]

Based on the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), an ACE inhibitor should be initiated and continued indefinitely after NSTE-ACS in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40% and in those with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or stable CKD unless contraindicated. Use of an ACE inhibitor may also be useful in all other patients with cardiac or other vascular disease.

  Stable coronary artery diseaseLevel of Evidence [G]

Based on the ACC/AHA guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease, an ACE inhibitor or ARB should be prescribed in all patients with stable ischemic heart disease who also have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, LVEF <40%, or CKD unless contraindicated.

  ST-elevation acute coronary syndromeLevel of Evidence [G]

Based on the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (STE-ACS), an ACE inhibitor should be initiated within the first 24 hours to all patients with STE-ACS with anterior location, HF, or LVEF ≤40%, unless contraindicated. It is also reasonable to initiate an ACE inhibitor in all patients with STE-ACS.

  Additional Off-Label Uses

Aldosteronism (diagnosis); Bartter’s syndrome; Hypertension secondary to scleroderma renal crisis; Hypertensive crisis; Idiopathic edema; Postmyocardial infarction for prevention of ventricular failure

Level of Evidence Definitions
  Level of Evidence Scale
Clinical Practice Guidelines

Atrial Fibrillation:

AHA/ACC/HRS, “2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation,” March 2014

Chronic Kidney Disease:

KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease, January 2013

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery:

“2011 ACC/AHA Guideline for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery,” November 2011

AHA Scientific Statement, “Secondary Prevention After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery,” February 2015

Diabetes Mellitus:

American Diabetes Association, “Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2018,” January 2018

Diabetes Canada, “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada,” 2018

Heart Failure:

ACC/AHA/HFSA, “2016 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update on New Pharmacological Therapy for Heart Failure,” May 2016

ACC/AHA, “2013 ACC/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure,” June 2013

Canadian Cardiovascular Society, “2012 Heart Failure Management Guidelines Update: Focus on Acute and Chronic Heart Failure,” 2012

“HFSA 2010 Comprehensive Heart Failure Practice Guideline,” July 2010

Hypertension:

“2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults,” November 2017.

AHA/ACC/ASH, “Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Scientific Statement by the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and American Society of Hypertension,” May 2015

“ACC/AHA Expert Consensus Document on Hypertension in the Elderly,” 2011

AHA/ACC/CDC, “AHA/ACC/CDC Science Advisory: An Effective Approach to High Blood Pressure Control” November 2013

ASH/ISH “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in the Community: A Statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension,” January 2014

Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), “2014 Evidence-based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults,” December 2013.

“National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents,” May 2005

Ischemic Heart Disease:

ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS, “2014 Focused Update of the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease,” July 2014

ACC/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS, “2012 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease,” November 2012

AHA/ACC, “2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients with Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes,” September 2014

ACC/AHA, “2013 ACC/AHA Guideline for the Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” December 2012.

Ischemic Stroke:

AHA/ASA “2014 Guidelines for the Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack, May 2014

Prevention:

“AHA/ACC Secondary Prevention and Risk Reduction Therapy for Patients with Coronary and Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: 2011 Update,” November 2011

Surgery:

ACC/AHA, “2014 ACC/AHA Guideline on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Management of Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery,” August 2014

Valvular Heart Disease:

AHA/ACC, “2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients with Valvular Heart Disease,” March 2014

Administration: Oral

Administer without regard to meals.

Administration: Pediatric

Oral: May administer without regard to food

Dietary Considerations

Limit salt substitutes or potassium-rich diet.

Storage/Stability

Oral solution: Store at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). Protect from freezing and excessive heat. May store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F) for up to 60 days.

Powder for oral solution kit: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F). Do not freeze. Protect from moisture. Once reconstituted, the solution should be stored at 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) and may be stored for up to 60 days.

Tablet: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from moisture.

Preparation for Administration: Adult

Powder for oral solution kit (for 150 mL, enalapril solution 1 mg/mL): Kit contains 1 bottle of enalapril powder and 1 bottle of Ora-Sweet SF dilution to be added to the enalapril powder prior to dispensing. Firmly tap the enalapril powder for oral solution bottle on a hard surface 5 times. Add approximately one-half (75 mL) of the Ora-Sweet SF diluent to the enalapril 150 mL oral solution bottle and shake well for 30 seconds. Add the remainder of the Ora-Sweet SF diluent and shake well for an additional 30 seconds. May be used for 60 days after reconstitution.

Preparation for Administration: Pediatric

Oral: Epaned: Solution kit (for 150 mL, enalapril solution 1 mg/mL): Kit contains 1 bottle of enalapril powder and 1 bottle of Ora-Sweet SF dilution to be added to the enalapril powder prior to dispensing. Firmly tap the enalapril powder for oral solution bottle on a hard surface 5 times. Add approximately one-half (75 mL) of the Ora-Sweet SF diluent to the enalapril 150 mL oral solution bottle and shake well for 30 seconds. Add the remainder of the Ora-Sweet SF diluent and shake well for an additional 30 seconds. May be used for 60 days after reconstitution.

Extemporaneously Prepared

Note: Commercial oral solution kit is available (1 mg/mL).

A 1 mg/mL oral suspension may be made with tablets, Bicitra [discontinued] or equivalent, and Ora-Sweet SF. Place ten 20 mg tablets in a 200 mL polyethylene terephthalate bottle; add 50 mL of Bicitra [discontinued] or equivalent and shake well for at least 2 minutes. Let stand for 1 hour then shake for 1 additional minute; add 150 mL of Ora-Sweet SF and shake well. Label “shake well” and “refrigerate”. Stable for 30 days when stored in a polyethylene terephthalate bottle and refrigerated (Vasotec prescribing information, 2017).

A 1 mg/mL oral suspension may be made with tablets and one of three different vehicles (cherry syrup, a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Sweet and Ora-Plus, or a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Sweet SF and Ora-Plus). Crush six 20 mg tablets in a mortar and reduce to a fine powder. Add 15 mL of the chosen vehicle and mix to a uniform paste; mix while adding the vehicle in incremental proportions to almost 120 mL; transfer to a calibrated bottle, rinse mortar with vehicle, and add quantity of vehicle sufficient to make 120 mL. Label “shake well” and “protect from light”. Stable for 60 days when stored in amber plastic prescription bottles in the dark at room temperature or refrigerated (Allen 1998).

A 1 mg/mL oral suspension may be made with tablets and one of three different vehicles (deionized water, citrate buffer solution at pH 5.0, or a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Sweet and Ora-Plus). Crush twenty 10 mg tablets in a mortar and reduce to a fine powder. Add small portions of the chosen vehicle and mix to a uniform paste; mix while adding vehicle in incremental proportions to almost 200 mL; transfer to a graduated cylinder, rinse mortar with vehicle, and add quantity of vehicle sufficient to make 200 mL. Label “shake well” and “protect from light”. Preparations made in citrate buffer solution at pH 5.0 and the 1:1 mixture of Ora-Sweet and Ora-Plus are stable for 91 days when stored in plastic prescription bottles in the dark at room temperature or refrigerated. Preparation made in deionized water is stable for 91 days refrigerated or 56 days at room temperature when stored in plastic prescription bottles in the dark. Note: To prepare the isotonic citrate buffer solution (pH 5.0), see reference (Nahata 1998).

A more dilute, 0.1 mg/mL oral suspension may be made with tablets and an isotonic buffer solution at pH 5.0. Grind one 20 mg tablet in a glass mortar and reduce to a fine powder; mix with isotonic citrate buffer (pH 5.0) and filter; add quantity of buffer solution sufficient to make 200 mL. Label “shake well”, “protect from light”, and “refrigerate”. Stable for 90 days (Boulton 1994).

Allen LV Jr and Erickson MA 3rd. Stability of alprazolam, chloroquine phosphate, cisapride, enalapril maleate, and hydralazine hydrochloride in extemporaneously compounded oral liquids. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1998;55(18):1915-1920.[PubMed 9784772]

Boulton DW, Woods DJ, Fawcett JP, et al. The stability of an enalapril maleate oral solution prepared from tablets. Aust J Hosp Pharm. 1994;24(2):151-156.

Nahata MC, Morosco RS, and Hipple TF. Stability of enalapril maleate in three extemporaneously prepared oral liquids. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1998;55(11):1155-1157.[PubMed 9626379]

Vasotec prescribing information, Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC: Bridgewater, NJ; 2017.

Medication Patient Education with HCAHPS Considerations

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of infection, signs of kidney problems (urinary retention, hematuria, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain), signs of high potassium (abnormal heartbeat, confusion, dizziness, passing out, weakness, shortness of breath, or numbness or tingling feeling), signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice), severe dizziness, passing out, persistent cough, angina, severe abdominal pain, severe nausea, or vomiting (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

Medication Safety Issues
  Sound-alike/look-alike issues:
  Administration issues:
  International issues:
Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to enalapril or any component of the formulation; angioedema related to previous treatment with an ACE inhibitor; idiopathic or hereditary angioedema; concomitant use with aliskiren in patients with diabetes mellitus; coadministration with or within 36 hours of switching to or from a neprilysin inhibitor (eg, sacubitril).

Documentation of allergenic cross-reactivity for ACE inhibitors is limited. However, because of similarities in chemical structure and/or pharmacologic actions, the possibility of cross-sensitivity cannot be ruled out with certainty.

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Concomitant use with aliskiren-containing drugs in patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2)

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Angioedema: At any time during treatment (especially following first dose) angioedema may occur rarely with ACE inhibitors; it may involve the head and neck (potentially compromising airway) or the intestine (presenting with abdominal pain). African-Americans may be at an increased risk. Risk may also be increased with concomitant use of mTOR inhibitor (eg, everolimus) therapy or a neprilysin inhibitor (eg, sacubitril). Prolonged frequent monitoring may be required especially if tongue, glottis, or larynx are involved as they are associated with airway obstruction. Patients with a history of airway surgery may have a higher risk of airway obstruction. Aggressive early and appropriate management is critical. Use in patients with idiopathic or hereditary angioedema or previous angioedema associated with ACE inhibitor therapy is contraindicated.

• Cholestatic jaundice: A rare toxicity associated with ACE inhibitors includes cholestatic jaundice, which may progress to fulminant hepatic necrosis (some fatal); discontinue if marked elevation of hepatic transaminases or jaundice occurs.

• Cough: An ACE inhibitor cough is a dry, hacking, nonproductive one that usually occurs within the first few months of treatment and should generally resolve within 1 to 4 weeks after discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Other causes of cough should be considered (eg, pulmonary congestion in patients with HF) and excluded prior to discontinuation.

• Hematologic effects: Another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has been associated with neutropenia with myeloid hypoplasia and agranulocytosis; anemia and thrombocytopenia have also occurred. Patients with renal impairment are at high risk of developing neutropenia. Patients with both renal impairment and collagen vascular disease (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus) are at an even higher risk of developing neutropenia. Periodically monitor CBC with differential in these patients.

• Hyperkalemia: May occur with ACE inhibitors; risk factors include renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salts. Use cautiously, if at all, with these agents and monitor potassium closely.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions can occur with ACE inhibitors. Severe anaphylactoid reactions may be seen during hemodialysis (eg, CVVHD) with high-flux dialysis membranes (eg, AN69), and rarely, during low density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate cellulose. Rare cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients undergoing sensitization treatment with hymenoptera (bee, wasp) venom while receiving ACE inhibitors.

• Hypotension/syncope: Symptomatic hypotension with or without syncope can occur with ACE inhibitors (usually with the first several doses). Effects are most often observed in volume-depleted patients; correct volume depletion prior to initiation. Close monitoring of patient is required, especially with initial dosing and dosing increases; blood pressure must be lowered at a rate appropriate for the patient’s clinical condition. Although dose reduction may be necessary, hypotension is not a reason for discontinuation of future ACE inhibitor use, especially in patients with HF where a reduction in systolic blood pressure is a desirable observation.

• Renal function deterioration: May be associated with deterioration of renal function and/or increases in serum creatinine, particularly in patients with low renal blood flow (eg, renal artery stenosis, HF) whose GFR is dependent on efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by angiotensin II; deterioration may result in oliguria, acute renal failure, and progressive azotemia. Small increases in serum creatinine may occur following initiation; consider discontinuation only in patients with progressive and/or significant deterioration in renal function (Bakris 2000).

Disease-related concerns:

• Aortic stenosis: Use with caution in patients with severe aortic stenosis; may reduce coronary perfusion resulting in ischemia.

• Ascites: Avoid use in patients with ascites due to cirrhosis or refractory ascites; if use cannot be avoided in patients with ascites due to cirrhosis, monitor blood pressure and renal function carefully to avoid rapid development of renal failure (AASLD [Runyon 2012]).

• Cardiovascular disease: Initiation of therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease warrants close observation due to the potential consequences posed by falling blood pressure (eg, MI, stroke). Fluid replacement, if needed, may restore blood pressure; therapy may then be resumed. Discontinue therapy in patients whose hypotension recurs.

• Collagen vascular disease: Use with caution in patients with collagen vascular disease especially with concomitant renal impairment; may be at increased risk for hematologic toxicity.

• Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with outflow tract obstruction: Use with caution in patients with HCM and outflow tract obstruction since reduction in afterload may worsen symptoms associated with this condition (ACC/AHA [Gersh 2011]).

• Renal artery stenosis: Use with caution in patients with unstented unilateral/bilateral renal artery stenosis. When unstented bilateral renal artery stenosis is present, use is generally avoided due to the elevated risk of deterioration in renal function unless possible benefits outweigh risks.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in preexisting renal insufficiency; dosage adjustment may be needed. Avoid rapid dosage escalation which may lead to further renal impairment.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Black patients: ACE inhibitors effectiveness is less in black patients than in non-blacks. In addition, ACE inhibitors cause a higher rate of angioedema in black than in non-black patients.

• Pregnancy: [US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected.

• Surgical patients: In patients on chronic ACE inhibitor therapy, intraoperative hypotension may occur with induction and maintenance of general anesthesia; use with caution before, during, or immediately after major surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass, intraoperative blood loss, or vasodilating anesthesia increases endogenous renin release. Use of ACE inhibitors perioperatively will blunt angiotensin II formation and may result in hypotension. However, discontinuation of therapy prior to surgery is controversial. If continued preoperatively, avoidance of hypotensive agents during surgery is prudent (Hillis 2011). Based on current research and clinical guidelines in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, continuing ACE inhibitors is reasonable in the perioperative period. If ACE inhibitors are held before surgery, it is reasonable to restart postoperatively as soon as clinically feasible (ACC/AHA [Fleisher 2014]).

Dosage forms specific issues:

• Oral solution: May contain sodium benzoate/benzoic acid; benzoic acid (benzoate) is a metabolite of benzyl alcohol. Large amounts of benzyl alcohol (≥99 mg/kg/day) have been associated with a potentially fatal toxicity (“gasping syndrome”) in neonates; the “gasping syndrome” consists of metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, gasping respirations, CNS dysfunction (including convulsions, intracranial hemorrhage), hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse (AAP 1997; CDC 1982). Some data suggest that benzoate displaces bilirubin from protein-binding sites (Ahlfors 2001); avoid or use dosage forms containing benzyl alcohol derivative with caution in neonates. See manufacturer’s labeling.

Geriatric Considerations

Due to frequent decreases in glomerular filtration (also creatinine clearance) with aging, elderly patients may have exaggerated responses to ACE inhibitors; differences in clinical response due to hepatic changes are not observed. ACE inhibitors may be preferred agents in elderly patients with congestive heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Diabetic proteinuria is reduced and insulin sensitivity is enhanced. In general, the side effect profile is favorable in the elderly and causes little or no CNS confusion; use lowest dose recommendations initially; adjust dose for renal function in the elderly. Many elderly may be volume depleted due to diuretic use and/or blunted thirst reflex resulting in inadequate fluid intake.

The AHA/ACC/ASH 2015 scientific statement on the treatment of hypertension in patients with CAD warns to use caution to avoid decreases in DBP <60 mm Hg especially in patients >60 years of age since reduced coronary perfusion may occur. When lowering SBP in older hypertensive patients with wide pulse pressures, very low DBP values (<60 mm Hg) may result. In patients with obstructive CAD, clinicians should lower blood pressure slowly and carefully monitor for any untoward signs or symptoms, especially those resulting from myocardial ischemia and worsening heart failure (AHA/ACC/ASH [Rosendorff 2015]).

Warnings: Additional Pediatric Considerations

In pediatric patients, an isolated dry hacking cough lasting >3 weeks was reported in seven of 42 pediatric patients (17%) receiving ACE inhibitors (von Vigier 2000); a review of pediatric randomized-controlled ACE inhibitor trials reported a lower incidence of 3.2% (Baker-Smith 2010). Other causes of cough should be considered (eg, pulmonary congestion in patients with heart failure) and excluded prior to discontinuation.

ACE inhibitors have been associated with nephrotoxicity in neonates, risk may be higher in preterm neonates; a retrospective study evaluated ACE inhibitor (captopril or enalapril) nephrotoxicity in 206 neonates (term [n=168] and preterm [n=38]) with cardiovascular disease; nearly 42% of neonates were in the pRIFLE category of risk or higher; 30% of all patients were in the renal failure category; when separated out into term and preterm, >50% of preterm neonates were in the renal failure category while receiving an ACE inhibitor and were significantly more likely to be in the renal failure category compared to term neonates (Lindle 2014). Initiate dosing at lower end of the range in preterm neonates. Severe hypotension was reported in a preterm neonate (birth weight: 835 g, gestational age: 26 weeks, postnatal age: 9 days) who was treated with enalapril 0.1 mg/kg orally; hypotension responded to IV plasma and dopamine; the authors suggest starting enalapril in preterm infants at 0.01 mg/kg and increasing upwards in a stepwise fashion with very close monitoring of blood pressure and urine output. However, in this case report, oral enalapril at doses of 0.01 mg/kg to 0.04 mg/kg did not adequately control blood pressure (Schilder 1995).

Pregnancy Considerations

[US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected. Enalapril crosses the placenta; the active metabolite enalaprilat can be detected in the newborn (Schubiger 1988).

Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system are associated with oligohydramnios. Oligohydramnios, due to decreased fetal renal function, may lead to fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal malformations. The use of these drugs in pregnancy is also associated with anuria, hypotension, renal failure, skull hypoplasia, and death in the fetus/neonate. Teratogenic effects may occur following maternal use of an ACE inhibitor during the first trimester, although this finding may be confounded by maternal disease. Because adverse fetal events are well documented with exposure later in pregnancy, ACE inhibitor use in pregnant women is not recommended (Seely 2014; Weber 2014). Infants exposed to an ACE inhibitor in utero should be monitored for hyperkalemia, hypotension, and oliguria. Oligohydramnios may not appear until after irreversible fetal injury has occurred. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required to reverse hypotension or improve renal function, although data related to the effectiveness in neonates is limited.

Chronic maternal hypertension itself is also associated with adverse events in the fetus/infant and mother. ACE inhibitors are not recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated hypertension in pregnancy (ACOG 2013) and they are specifically contraindicated for the treatment of hypertension and chronic heart failure during pregnancy by some guidelines (Regitz-Zagrosek [ESC 2018]). In addition, ACE inhibitors should generally be avoided in women of reproductive age (ACOG 2013). If treatment for hypertension or chronic heart failure in pregnancy is needed, other agents should be used (ACOG 2013; Regitz-Zagrosek [ESC 2018]).

Breast-Feeding Considerations

Enalapril and enalaprilat are present in breast milk.

The relative infant dose (RID) of enalapril is 1.1% when calculated using the highest breast milk concentration located and compared to an infant therapeutic dose of 0.08 mg/kg/day.

In general, breastfeeding is considered acceptable when the RID of a medication is <10% (Anderson 2016; Ito 2000).

The RID of enalapril was calculated using a milk concentration of 5.9 ng/mL, providing an estimated daily infant dose via breast milk of 0.00089 mg/kg/day. This milk concentration was obtained following maternal administration enalapril 20 mg. Enalaprilat was also present (Redman 1990).

Due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in the breastfed infant, the manufacturer recommends a decision be made whether to discontinue breastfeeding or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of treatment to the mother.

Lexicomp Pregnancy & Lactation, In-Depth
Briggs’ Drugs in Pregnancy & Lactation
Adverse Reactions

Note: Frequency ranges include data from hypertension and heart failure trials. Higher rates of adverse reactions have generally been noted in patients with CHF. However, the frequency of adverse effects associated with placebo is also increased in this population.

>10%: Renal: Increased serum creatinine (≤20%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Hypotension (1% to 7%), chest pain (2%), orthostatic effect (1% to 2%), orthostatic hypotension (2%), syncope (≤2%)

Central nervous system: Dizziness (4% to 8%), headache (2% to 5%), fatigue (2% to 3%)

Dermatologic: Skin rash (1% to 2%)

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, dysgeusia, nausea, vomiting

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Weakness

Renal: Renal insufficiency (in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or hypovolemia)

Respiratory: Bronchitis (1% to 2%), cough (1% to 2%), dyspnea (1% to 2%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Abnormal dreams, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, agranulocytosis, alopecia, anaphylactoid reaction, angina pectoris, angioedema, anosmia, arthralgia, arthritis, asthma, ataxia, atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia, blurred vision, bone marrow depression, bradycardia, bronchospasm, cardiac arrest, cardiac arrhythmia, cerebrovascular accident, cholestatic jaundice, confusion, conjunctivitis, depression, diaphoresis, drowsiness, dry eye syndrome, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, eosinophilic pneumonitis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, fever, flank pain, flushing, giant-cell arteritis, glossitis, gynecomastia, hallucination, hemolysis (with G6PD), hepatitis, herpes zoster, hoarseness, IgA vasculitis, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, intestinal obstruction, impotence, insomnia, interstitial nephritis, jaundice, lacrimation, leukocytosis, lichenoid eruption, melena, muscle cramps, myocardial infarction, myalgia, myositis, nervousness, neutropenia, ototoxicity, palpitations, pancreatitis, paresthesia, pemphigus, pemphigus foliaceus, peripheral neuropathy, positive ANA titer, pruritus, psychosis, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary infarct, pulmonary infiltrates, Raynaud’s phenomenon, rhinorrhea, serositis, Sjogren’s syndrome, skin photosensitivity, sore throat, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, stomatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thrombocytopenia, tinnitus, toxic epidermal necrolysis, upper respiratory tract infection, urticaria, vasculitis, vertigo, visual hallucination (Doane, 2013), xerostomia

Allergy and Idiosyncratic Reactions
Metabolism/Transport Effects

None known.

Drug Interactions 

Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Aliskiren: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Management: Aliskiren use with ACEIs or ARBs in patients with diabetes is contraindicated. Combined use in other patients should be avoided, particularly when CrCl is less than 60 mL/min. If combined, monitor potassium, creatinine, and blood pressure closely. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Allopurinol: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the potential for allergic or hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When amifostine is used at chemotherapy doses, blood pressure lowering medications should be withheld for 24 hours prior to amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be withheld, amifostine should not be administered. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Amphetamines: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Angiotensin II: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin II. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Management: In US labeling, use of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended. It is not clear if any other combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB would be any safer. Consider alternatives to the combination when possible. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]).Risk C: Monitor therapy

Aprotinin: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

AzaTHIOprine: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of AzaTHIOprine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Benperidol: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brigatinib: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Brigatinib may enhance the bradycardic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bromperidol: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Bromperidol. Bromperidol may diminish the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk X: Avoid combination

Dapoxetine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dexmethylphenidate: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Drospirenone: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Eplerenone: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Everolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ferric Gluconate: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Gluconate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex. Specifically, the risk for angioedema or allergic reactions may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Gelatin (Succinylated): Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Gelatin (Succinylated). Specifically, the risk of a paradoxical hypotensive reaction may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Gold Sodium Thiomalate: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Gold Sodium Thiomalate. An increased risk of nitritoid reactions has been appreciated. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract): Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Specifically, ACE inhibitors may increase the risk of severe allergic reaction to Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Heparin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Heparins (Low Molecular Weight): May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Icatibant: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Iron Dextran Complex: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iron Dextran Complex. Specifically, patients receiving an ACE inhibitor may be at an increased risk for anaphylactic-type reactions. Management: Follow iron dextran recommendations closely regarding both having resuscitation equipment and trained personnel on-hand prior to iron dextran administration and the use of a test dose prior to the first therapeutic dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lanthanum: May decrease the serum concentration of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Management: Administer angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at least two hours before or after lanthanum. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Levodopa-Containing Products: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa-Containing Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lithium: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. Management: Lithium dosage reductions will likely be needed following the addition of an ACE inhibitor. Monitor patient response to lithium closely following addition or discontinuation of concurrent ACE inhibitor treatment. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Loop Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Loop Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lormetazepam: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Naftopidil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicergoline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nitroprusside: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Nitroprusside. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pholcodine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Pholcodine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Potassium Salts: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pregabalin: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Pregabalin. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Quinagolide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Racecadotril: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk for angioedema may be increased with this combination. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sacubitril: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sacubitril. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased with this combination.Risk X: Avoid combination

Salicylates: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sodium Phosphates: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with ACEIs, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function closely. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Temsirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

TiZANidine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tolvaptan: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Trimethoprim: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Test Interactions

Positive Coombs’ [direct]; may cause false-positive results in urine acetone determinations using sodium nitroprusside reagent; may lead to false-negative aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) (Funder 2016)

Monitoring Parameters

Blood pressure; serum creatinine and potassium; if patient has collagen vascular disease and/or renal impairment, periodically monitor CBC with differential

Heart Failure: Within 1 to 2 weeks after initiation and periodically thereafter, reassess renal function and serum potassium especially in patients with preexisting hypotension, hyponatremia, diabetes mellitus, azotemia, or those taking potassium supplements (ACC/AHA [Yancy 2013]).

Hypertension: The 2017 Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults (ACC/AHA [Whelton 2017]):

Confirmed hypertension and known CVD or 10-year ASCVD risk ≥10%: Target blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg is recommended

Confirmed hypertension without markers of increased ASCVD risk: Target blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg may be reasonable

Diabetes and hypertension: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (ADA 2018):

Patients ≥18 to ≤65 years of age: Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg

Patients ≥18 to ≤65 years of age and at high risk of cardiovascular disease: Goal of therapy is SBP <130 mm Hg and DBP <80 mm Hg (if can be achieved without undue treatment burden)

Patients ≥65 years of age (healthy or complex/intermediate health): Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg

Patients ≥65 years of age (very complex/poor health): Goal of therapy is SBP <150 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg

Advanced Practitioners Physical Assessment/Monitoring

Obtain BUN, serum creatinine, electrolytes, and CBC with differential (patients with renal impairment or collagen vascular disease). Monitor blood pressure. Assess other medicines patient may be taking; alternate therapy or dosage adjustments may be needed. Assess for signs of angioedema.

Nursing Physical Assessment/Monitoring

Check ordered labs and report abnormalities. Monitor blood pressure. Monitor for signs of angioedema.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Solution, Oral, as maleate:

Epaned: 1 mg/mL (150 mL) [contains sodium benzoate]

Solution Reconstituted, Oral, as maleate:

Epaned: 1 mg/mL (150 mL [DSC]) [contains methylparaben, propylparaben, saccharin sodium; berry-citrus flavor]

Tablet, Oral, as maleate:

Vasotec: 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg [scored]

Generic: 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg

Dosage Forms: Canada

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Tablet, Oral:

Generic: 40 mg [DSC]

Tablet, Oral, as maleate:

Vasotec: 2.5 mg [DSC], 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg

Generic: 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg

Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification
  • C09AA02
Generic Available (US)

May be product dependent

Pricing: US

Solution (Epaned Oral)

1 mg/mL (per mL): $3.94

Tablets (Enalapril Maleate Oral)

2.5 mg (per each): $0.52 – $1.46

5 mg (per each): $0.67 – $1.85

10 mg (per each): $0.70 – $1.94

20 mg (per each): $1.00 – $2.77

Tablets (Vasotec Oral)

2.5 mg (per each): $16.63

5 mg (per each): $19.29

10 mg (per each): $21.21

20 mg (per each): $30.18

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer’s AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Mechanism of Action

Competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor; results in lower levels of angiotensin II which causes an increase in plasma renin activity and a reduction in aldosterone secretion

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics

Onset of action: ~1 hour

Peak effect: 4 to 6 hours

Duration: 12 to 24 hours

Absorption: 55% to 75%

Protein binding: ~50% (Davies 1984)

Metabolism: Prodrug, undergoes hepatic biotransformation to enalaprilat

Half-life elimination:

Enalapril: CHF: Neonates (n=3, PNA: 10 to 19 days): 10.3 hours (range: 4.2 to 13.4 hours) (Nakamura 1994); CHF: Infants and Children ≤6.5 years of age (n=11): 2.7 hours (range: 1.3 to 6.3 hours) (Nakamura 1994); Adults: Healthy: 2 hours; CHF: 3.4 to 5.8 hours

Enalaprilat: CHF: Neonates (n=3, PNA: 10 to 19 days): 11.9 hours (range: 5.9 to 15.6 hours) (Nakamura 1994); CHF: Infants and Children ≤6.5 years of age (n=11): 11.1 hours (range: 5.1 to 20.8 hours) (Nakamura 1994); Infants 6 weeks to 8 months of age: 6 to 10 hours (Lloyd 1989); Adults: ~35 hours (Till 1984; Ulm 1982)

Time to peak, serum: Oral: Enalapril: 0.5 to 1.5 hours; Enalaprilat (active metabolite): 3 to 4.5 hours

Excretion: Urine (61%; 18% of which was enalapril, 43% was enalaprilat); feces (33%; 6% of which was enalapril, 27% was enalaprilat) (Ulm 1982)

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics: Additional Considerations

Renal function impairment: In those with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 30 mL/minute or less, the peak and trough enalaprilat levels increase, Tmax increases, and time to steady state may be delayed.

Local Anesthetic/Vasoconstrictor Precautions

No information available to require special precautions

Effects on Dental Treatment

Key adverse event(s) related to dental treatment: Abnormal taste; Patients may experience orthostatic hypotension as they stand up after treatment; especially if lying in dental chair for extended periods of time. Use caution with sudden changes in position during and after dental treatment.

An angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor cough is a dry, hacking, nonproductive cough that can potentially interfere with longer dental procedures if patient has this side effect.

Effects on Bleeding

No information available to require special precautions

Index Terms

Enalapril Maleate

FDA Approval Date
December 24, 1985
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Miller DR, Oliveria SA, Berlowitz DR, et al, “Angioedema Incidence in US Veterens Initiating Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors,” Hypertension, 2008, 51(6):1-7.[PubMed 18413488]

Momma K, “ACE Inhibitors in Pediatric Patients With Heart Failure,” Paediatr Drugs, 2006, 8(1):55-69.[PubMed 16494512]

Nakamura H, Ishii M, Sugimura T, et al, “The Kinetic Profiles of Enalapril and Enalaprilat and Their Possible Developmental Changes in Pediatric Patients With Congestive Heart Failure,” Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1994, 56(2):160-8.[PubMed 8062492]

National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents, “The Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents,” Pediatrics, 2004, 114(2 Suppl):555-76.[PubMed 15286277]

Nishimura RA, Otto CM, Bonow RO, et al, 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(23):2440-92. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000029.[PubMed 24589852]

O’Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines [published correction appears in Circulation. 2013;128(25):e481.] Circulation. 2013;127(4):e362-425.[PubMed 23247304]

Packer M, Poole-Wilson PA, Armstrong PW, et al, “Comparative Effects of Low and High Doses of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor, Lisinopril, on Morbidity and Mortality in Chronic Heart Failure,” Circulation, 1999, 100(23):2312-8.[PubMed 10587334]

Pfeffer MA, Greaves SC, Arnold JM, et al, “Early Versus Delayed Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction. The Healing and Early Afterload Reducing Therapy Trial,” Circulation, 1997, 95(12):2643-51.[PubMed 9193433]

Pfeffer MA, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ, et al, “Valsartan, Captopril, or Both in Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Heart Failure, Left Ventricular Dysfunction, or Both,” N Engl J Med, 2003, 349(20):1893-906.[PubMed 14610160]

Quan A , “Fetopathy Associated With Exposure to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists,” Early Hum Dev, 2006, 82(1):23-8.[PubMed 16427219]

Redman CW, Kelly JG, Cooper WD. The excretion of enalapril and enalaprilat in human breast milk. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;38(1):99.[PubMed 2158450 ]

Regitz-Zagrosek V, Roos-Hesselink JW, Bauersachs J, et al. 2018 ESC Guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy. Eur Heart J. 2018;39(34):3165-3241.[PubMed 30165544]

Rosendorff C, Lackland DT, Allison M, et al; American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Society of Hypertension. Treatment of hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Society of Hypertension. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2015;9(6):453-498. doi: 10.1016/j.jash.2015.03.002.[PubMed 25840695]

Runyon BA; AASLD. Introduction to the revised American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Practice Guideline management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis 2012. Hepatology. 2013;57(4):1651-1653. doi:10.1002/hep.26359.[PubMed 23463403]

Schubiger G, Flury G, Nussberger J. Enalapril for pregnancy-induced hypertension: acute renal failure in a neonate. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108(2):215-216.[PubMed 2829674 ]

Seely EW, Ecker J. Chronic hypertension in pregnancy. Circulation. 2014;129(11):1254-1261.[PubMed 24637432 ]

Smith SC Jr, Benjamin EJ, Bonow RO, et al, “AHA/ACCF Secondary Prevention and Risk Reduction Therapy for Patients With Coronary and Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: 2011 Update: A Guideline From the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation,” Circulation, 2011, 124(22):2458-73.[PubMed 22052934]

Smoger SH and Sayed MA, “Simultaneous Mucosal and Small Bowel Angioedema Due to Captopril,” South Med J, 1998, 91(11):1060-3.[PubMed 9824192]

Till AE, Gomez HJ, Hichens M, et al, “Pharmacokinetics of Repeated Single Oral Doses of Enalapril Maleate (MK-421) in Normal Volunteers,” Biopharm Drug Dispos, 1984, 5(3):273-80.[PubMed 6091806]

Ulm EH, Hichens M, Gomez HJ, et al, “Enalapril Maleate and a Lysine Analogue (MK-521): Disposition in Man,” Br J Clin Pharmacol, 1982, 14(3):357-62.[PubMed 6289858]

Vasotec (enalapril) [prescribing information]. Bridgewater, NJ: Valeant Pharmaceuticals; August 2018.

Vasotec (enalapril) [product monograph]. Kirkland, Quebec, Canada: Merck Canada Inc; June 2018.

Weber MA, Schiffrin EL, White WB, et al, Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community: a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2014;16(1):14-26.[PubMed 24341872]

Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines [published online ahead of print on November 13, 2017.]. Hypertension. 2017. doi: 10.1161/HYP.0000000000000065.[PubMed 29133356]

Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2016 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update on new pharmacological therapy for heart failure: an update of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America [published online May 20, 2016]. Circulation. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000435.[PubMed 27208050]

Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al; American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2013;128(16):e240-e327.[PubMed 23741058]

Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, et al, “Effects of an Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Inhibitor, Ramipril, on Cardiovascular Events in High-Risk Patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators,” N Engl J Med, 2000, 342(3):145-53.[PubMed 10639539]

Brand Names: International

Acapril (EG); Acebitor (PH); Acetec (MY); Acetensil (ES); Alapren (ZA); Amprace (NZ); Analept (GR); Anapril (BD, SG, TH); Anapril S Minitab (TH); Angiotec (JO, QA, SA); Angonic (VN); Antens (ET, KR); Apridal (PY); Auspril (AU); Bajaten (CL); Baripril (ES); Bealipril (LV); Beartec (KR); Benalipril (DE); Berlipril (BG, HR, UA); Biocronil (CO); Bonapress (CR, DO, GT, HN, NI, PA, SV); BQL (BF, BJ, CI, ET, GH, GM, GN, IN, KE, LR, MA, ML, MR, MU, MW, NE, NG, SC, SD, SL, SN, TN, TZ, UG, ZM); Converten (IN); Corodil (DK); Crinoren (ES); Dabonal (ES); Danssan (MY); Dynapril (PH); Ednyt (BB, BM, BS, BZ, GY, HU, JM, LV, SR, TT); Elfonal (KR); Enace (TH); Enahexal (NZ, UA); Enalagamma (DE); Enalap (EG); Enalapril (ES); Enaloc (FI); Enam (LK, UA); Enap (HK, HR, HU, IE, LV, RO, SG, SI, SK, UA); Enap i.v. (HR); Enap [inj.] (HU); Enaprel (ET); Enapren (IT); Enapril (ZW); Enaprin (KR); Enaril (BD, KR, TH); Enatec (BB, BM, BS, BZ, GY, JM, SR, TT); Enazil (PL); Enbid-20 (PH); Enetil (CO); Enpril (KR); Entab (LK); Envas (BF, BJ, CI, ET, GH, GM, GN, IN, KE, LR, MA, ML, MR, MU, MW, NE, NG, SC, SD, SL, SN, TN, TZ, UG, ZM); Eril (BD); Ezapril (EG); Glioten (BR, EC, PE, PY, SG); Grifopil (CL); Herten (ES); Hypace (PH); Hyperil (KR); Hypril (PH); Hytrol (IN); Iecatec (QA); Ileveran (MX); Innovace (GB, IE); Invoril (AE, BF, BJ, CI, ET, GH, GM, GN, IN, KE, LR, MA, ML, MR, MU, MW, NE, NG, SC, SD, SG, SL, SN, TH, TN, TZ, UG, ZM); Istopril (TR); Kalpiren (MT); Kaparlon-S (MT); Korandil (BH, ET, MT, TR, ZW); Lapril (JO, QA, SA, TH); Lenipril (KR); Lotrial (AR, CR, DO, GT, HN, NI, PA, PE, SV, UY); Macpril (LK); Meipril (ID); Naprilate (PH); Naprilene (IT); Narapril (AE, BH, KR); Neopril (KR); Nuril (IN); Olivin (HR); Perisafe (TW); Pres (DE); Presil (CO); Prilace (EC); Rapril (KR); Renacardon (ID); Renallapin (KR); Renite (PH); Renite XL (PH); Renitec (AE, AR, AT, AU, BE, BF, BG, BH, BJ, BR, CI, CN, CO, CY, CZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, ET, FI, FR, GH, GM, GN, GR, HU, JO, KE, KW, LB, LR, LU, MA, ML, MR, MU, MW, MY, NE, NG, NL, NO, NZ, PE, PH, PK, PT, QA, SA, SC, SD, SE, SL, SN, TN, TR, TW, TZ, UA, UG, VE, VN, ZM); Renitek (RU); Reniten (CH); Renivace (JP); Sintec (TW); Tenace (ID); Tenaten (ID); Unipril (CO); Vasonorm (LK); Vasopress (PH); Vasopril (AE, BD, JO); Xanef (DE)

Enalapril (Patient Education – Adult Medication)
You must carefully read the “Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer” below in order to understand and correctly use this information
Pronunciation

(e NAL a pril)

Brand Names: US

Epaned; Vasotec

Brand Names: Canada

Vasotec

Warning
  • Do not take if you are pregnant. Use during pregnancy may cause birth defects or loss of the unborn baby. If you get pregnant or plan on getting pregnant while taking this drug, call your doctor right away.
What is this drug used for?
  • It is used to treat high blood pressure.
  • It is used to treat heart failure (weak heart).
  • It is used in certain patients with heart failure to lower the chance of having to go to the hospital for heart failure that gets worse.
  • It may be given to you for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.
What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take this drug?
  • For all patients taking this drug:
  • If you have an allergy to enalapril or any other part of this drug.
  • If you are allergic to any drugs like this one, any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had, like rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs.
  • If you have kidney disease.
  • If you have ever had a very bad or life-threatening reaction called angioedema. Signs may be swelling of the hands, face, lips, eyes, tongue, or throat; trouble breathing; trouble swallowing; unusual hoarseness.
  • If you are taking a drug that has aliskiren in it and you also have high blood sugar (diabetes) or kidney problems. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if a drug you take has aliskiren in it.
  • If you have taken a drug that has sacubitril in it in the last 36 hours.
  • If you are breast-feeding. Do not breast-feed while you take this drug.
  • Children:
  • If your child is younger than 1 month of age. Do not give this drug to an infant younger than 1 month of age.
  • If your child was born premature and has not reached the corrected age of 44 weeks.
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this drug.
  • Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take this drug with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.
What are some things I need to know or do while I take this drug?
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take this drug. This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • Avoid driving and doing other tasks or actions that call for you to be alert until you see how this drug affects you.
  • To lower the chance of feeling dizzy or passing out, rise slowly if you have been sitting or lying down. Be careful going up and down stairs.
  • Have your blood pressure checked often. Talk with your doctor.
  • Have blood work checked as you have been told by the doctor. Talk with the doctor.
  • If you are taking a salt substitute that has potassium in it, a potassium-sparing diuretic, or a potassium product, talk with your doctor.
  • If you are on a low-salt or salt-free diet, talk with your doctor.
  • If you are taking lithium, talk with your doctor. You may need to have your blood work checked more closely while you are taking it with this drug.
  • Low white blood cell counts have happened with captopril, a drug like this one. This may lead to more chance of getting an infection. Most of the time, this has happened in people with kidney problems, mainly if they have certain other health problems. Call your doctor right away if you have signs of infection like fever, chills, or sore throat. Talk with your doctor.
  • If you are taking this drug and have high blood pressure, talk with your doctor before using OTC products that may raise blood pressure. These include cough or cold drugs, diet pills, stimulants, ibuprofen or like products, and some natural products or aids.
  • Talk with your doctor before you drink alcohol.
  • Be careful in hot weather or while being active. Drink lots of fluids to stop fluid loss.
  • Tell your doctor if you have too much sweat, fluid loss, throwing up, or loose stools. This may lead to low blood pressure.
  • This drug may not work as well in black patients. Talk with the doctor.
  • A very bad reaction called angioedema has happened with this drug. Sometimes, this has been deadly. The chance of angioedema may be higher in black patients. Talk with the doctor.
What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?
  • WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
  • Signs of a high potassium level like a heartbeat that does not feel normal; change in thinking clearly and with logic; feeling weak, lightheaded, or dizzy; feel like passing out; numbness or tingling; or shortness of breath.
  • Very bad dizziness or passing out.
  • Cough that does not go away.
  • Chest pain or pressure.
  • Very bad belly pain.
  • Very upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Liver problems have happened with drugs like this one. Sometimes, this has been deadly. Call your doctor right away if you have signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.
What are some other side effects of this drug?
  • All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:
  • Dizziness.
  • Cough.
  • These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
  • You may report side effects to your national health agency.
How is this drug best taken?
  • Use this drug as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.
  • All products:
  • Take this drug at the same time of day.
  • Keep taking this drug as you have been told by your doctor or other health care provider, even if you feel well.
  • To gain the most benefit, do not miss doses.
  • Drink lots of noncaffeine liquids unless told to drink less liquid by your doctor.
  • Tablets:
  • A liquid (suspension) can be made if you cannot swallow pills. Talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
  • If a liquid (suspension) is made, shake well before use.
  • All liquid products:
  • Measure liquid doses carefully. Use the measuring device that comes with this drug. If there is none, ask the pharmacist for a device to measure this drug.
What do I do if I miss a dose?
  • Take a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
  • If it is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.
How do I store and/or throw out this drug?
  • All products:
  • Store at room temperature. Do not freeze.
  • Protect from heat.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.
  • Tablets:
  • If a liquid (suspension) is made from the tablets, store in a refrigerator. Do not freeze. Throw away any part not used after 30 days.
  • Liquid (solution):
  • Throw away any part not used after 60 days. If this drug was mixed from a powder, throw away any unused part 60 days after this drug was mixed. Talk with your pharmacist if you have questions about this.
General drug facts
  • If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
  • Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else’s drugs.
  • Keep a list of all your drugs (prescription, natural products, vitamins, OTC) with you. Give this list to your doctor.
  • Talk with the doctor before starting any new drug, including prescription or OTC, natural products, or vitamins.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.
Enalapril (Patient Education – Pediatric Medication)
You must carefully read the “Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer” below in order to understand and correctly use this information
Pronunciation

(e NAL a pril)

Brand Names: US

Epaned; Vasotec

Brand Names: Canada

Vasotec

Warning
  • If your child is or may be pregnant:
  • Do not give this drug to your child if she is pregnant. Use during pregnancy may cause birth defects or loss of the unborn baby. If your child gets pregnant or plans on getting pregnant while taking this drug, call the doctor right away.
What is this drug used for?
  • It is used to treat high blood pressure.
  • It is used to treat heart failure (weak heart).
  • It may be given to your child for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.
What do I need to tell the doctor BEFORE my child takes this drug?
  • If your child has an allergy to this drug or any part of this drug.
  • If your child is allergic to any drugs like this one or any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell the doctor about the allergy and what signs your child had, like rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs.
  • If your child has ever had a very bad or life-threatening reaction called angioedema. Signs may be swelling of the hands, face, lips, eyes, tongue, or throat; trouble breathing; trouble swallowing; unusual hoarseness.
  • If your child is taking a drug that has aliskiren in it and your child also has high blood sugar (diabetes) or kidney problems. Check with the doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if a drug your child takes has aliskiren in it.
  • If your child has taken a drug that has sacubitril in it in the last 36 hours.
  • If your child has kidney disease.
  • If your child is younger than 1 month of age. Do not give this drug to an infant younger than 1 month of age.
  • If your child was born premature and has not reached the corrected age of 44 weeks.
  • If your child is breast-feeding a baby:
  • Be sure your child does not breast-feed a baby while taking this drug.
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this drug.
  • Tell the doctor and pharmacist about all of your child’s drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for your child to take this drug with all of his/her drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug your child takes without checking with the doctor.
What are some things I need to know or do while my child takes this drug?
  • Tell all of your child’s health care providers that your child is taking this drug. This includes your child’s doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • Have your child avoid tasks or actions that call for alertness until you see how this drug affects your child. These are things like riding a bike, playing sports, or using items such as scissors, lawnmowers, electric scooters, toy cars, or motorized vehicles.
  • To lower the chance of feeling dizzy or passing out, have your child rise slowly if your child has been sitting or lying down. Have your child be careful going up and down stairs.
  • Have your child’s blood pressure checked often. Talk with your child’s doctor.
  • Have blood work checked as you have been told by the doctor. Talk with the doctor.
  • If your child is on a low-salt or salt-free diet, talk with your child’s doctor.
  • If your child is taking a salt substitute that has potassium in it, a potassium-sparing diuretic, or a potassium product, talk with your child’s doctor.
  • If your child is taking lithium, talk with the doctor. Your child may need to have blood work checked more closely while taking it with this drug.
  • Low white blood cell counts have happened with captopril, a drug like this one. This may lead to more chance of getting an infection. Most of the time, this has happened in people with kidney problems, mainly if they have certain other health problems. Call the doctor right away if your child has signs of infection like fever, chills, or sore throat. Talk with the doctor.
  • If your child is taking this drug and has high blood pressure, talk with the doctor before giving OTC products that may raise blood pressure. These include cough or cold drugs, diet pills, stimulants, ibuprofen or like products, and some natural products or aids.
  • Alcohol may interact with this drug. Be sure your child does not drink alcohol.
  • Have your child be careful in hot weather or while your child is being active. Have your child drink lots of fluids to stop fluid loss.
  • Tell the doctor if your child has too much sweat, fluid loss, throwing up, or diarrhea. This may lead to low blood pressure.
  • This drug may not work as well in black patients. Talk with the doctor.
  • A very bad reaction called angioedema has happened with this drug. Sometimes, this has been deadly. The chance of angioedema may be higher in black patients. Talk with the doctor.
What are some side effects that I need to call my child’s doctor about right away?
  • WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your child’s doctor or get medical help right away if your child has any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
  • Signs of a high potassium level like a heartbeat that does not feel normal; change in thinking clearly and with logic; feeling weak, lightheaded, or dizzy; feel like passing out; numbness or tingling; or shortness of breath.
  • Very bad dizziness or passing out.
  • Chest pain or pressure.
  • Cough that does not go away.
  • Very bad belly pain.
  • Very upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Liver problems have happened with drugs like this one. Sometimes, this has been deadly. Call the doctor right away if your child has signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.
What are some other side effects of this drug?
  • All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your child’s doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother your child or do not go away:
  • Dizziness.
  • Cough.
  • These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your child’s doctor. Call your child’s doctor for medical advice about side effects.
  • You may report side effects to your national health agency.
How is this drug best given?
  • Give this drug as ordered by your child’s doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.
  • All products:
  • Give this drug at the same time of day.
  • To gain the most benefit, do not miss giving your child doses.
  • Keep giving this drug to your child as you have been told by your child’s doctor or other health care provider, even if your child feels well.
  • Have your child drink lots of noncaffeine liquids every day unless told to drink less liquid by your child’s doctor.
  • Tablets:
  • A liquid (suspension) can be made if your child cannot swallow pills. Talk with your child’s doctor or pharmacist.
  • If a liquid (suspension) is made, shake well before use.
  • All liquid products:
  • Measure liquid doses carefully. Use the measuring device that comes with this drug. If there is none, ask the pharmacist for a device to measure this drug.
What do I do if my child misses a dose?
  • Give a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
  • If it is close to the time for your child’s next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your child’s normal time.
  • Do not give 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.
How do I store and/or throw out this drug?
  • All products:
  • Store at room temperature. Do not freeze.
  • Protect from heat.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.
  • Tablets:
  • If a liquid (suspension) is made from the tablets, store in a refrigerator. Do not freeze. Throw away any part not used after 30 days.
  • Liquid (solution):
  • Throw away any part not used after 60 days. If this drug was mixed from a powder, throw away any unused part 60 days after this drug was mixed. Talk with your pharmacist if you have questions about this.
General drug facts
  • If your child’s symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your child’s doctor.
  • Do not share your child’s drug with others and do not give anyone else’s drug to your child.
  • Keep a list of all your child’s drugs (prescription, natural products, vitamins, OTC) with you. Give this list to your child’s doctor.
  • Talk with your child’s doctor before giving your child any new drug, including prescription or OTC, natural products, or vitamins.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your child’s doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.