Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide (Lexi-Drugs)

ALERT: US Boxed Warning
  Fetal toxicity:
Special Alerts
  Hydrochlorothiazide Safety AlertJanuary 2019
  Valsartan and Valsartan-Containing Products RecalledUpdated 9/14/2018
Drug Shortages

One or more forms of this drug may be in short supply or unavailable. Refer to the following for additional information:

ASHP: http://www.ashp.org/menu/DrugShortages

Pronunciation

(val SAR tan & hye droe klor oh THYE a zide)

Brand Names: US

Diovan HCT

Brand Names: Canada

Diovan HCT; Valsartan-HCT; Valsartan-HCTZ

Dosing: Adult

Hypertension: Oral:

Dose is individualized; combination product may be used as initial therapy or substituted for individual components in patients currently maintained on both agents separately or in patients not adequately controlled with monotherapy (using one of the agents or an agent within same antihypertensive class).

Initial therapy: Valsartan 160 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg once daily; titrate as needed based on patient response after 1 to 2 weeks of therapy. Maximum dose: Valsartan 320 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg per day.

Add-on/replacement therapy: Valsartan 80 to 320 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 to 25 mg once daily; titrate as needed based on patient response after 3 to 4 weeks of therapy. Maximum dose: Valsartan 320 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg per day.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment: Adult

CrCl ≥30 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary.

CrCl <30 mL/minute: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied). Use is contraindicated in patients with anuria.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

Mild to moderate impairment: No dosage adjustment necessary; use with caution. Patients with mild to moderate chronic disease have twice the exposure of valsartan as healthy volunteers.

Severe impairment: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied).

Use: Labeled Indications

Hypertension: Management of hypertension (initial, add-on, or as substitute for titrated components)

Clinical Practice Guidelines

See individual agents.

Administration: Oral

Administer with or without food.

Dietary Considerations

Avoid salt substitutes which contain potassium. May be taken with or without food.

Storage/Stability

Store at controlled room temperature of 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from moisture.

Medication Patient Education with HCAHPS Considerations

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience rhinitis or pharyngitis. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of high blood sugar (confusion, fatigue, increased thirst, increased hunger, polyuria, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit), signs of fluid and electrolyte problems (mood changes, confusion, muscle pain or weakness, abnormal heartbeat, severe dizziness, passing out, tachycardia, increased thirst, seizures, loss of strength and energy, lack of appetite, urinary retention or change in amount of urine passed, dry mouth, dry eyes, nausea, or vomiting), signs of kidney problems (urinary retention, hematuria, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain), swelling of arms and legs, vision changes, or eye pain (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.

Medication Safety Issues
  Sound-alike/look-alike issues:
  Geriatric patients: High-risk medication:
Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to valsartan, hydrochlorothiazide, sulfonamide-derived drugs, or any component of the formulation; concomitant use with aliskiren in patients with diabetes mellitus; anuria

Note: Although the FDA approved product labeling states this medication is contraindicated with other sulfonamide-containing drug classes, the scientific basis of this statement has been challenged. See “Warnings/Precautions” for more detail.

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Severe progressive renal disease and if increasing azotemia and oliguria occur during treatment; pregnancy; breastfeeding; concomitant use with aliskiren in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2); hyponatremia; hypercalcemia; symptomatic hyperuricemia; conditions involving enhanced potassium loss

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Angioedema: Angioedema has been reported rarely with some angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) and may occur at any time during treatment (especially following first dose). It may involve the head and neck (potentially compromising airway) or the intestine (presenting with abdominal pain). Patients with idiopathic or hereditary angioedema or previous angioedema associated with ACE-inhibitor therapy may be at an increased risk. Prolonged frequent monitoring may be required, especially if tongue, glottis, or larynx are involved, as they are associated with airway obstruction. Patients with a history of airway surgery may have a higher risk of airway obstruction. Discontinue therapy immediately if angioedema occurs. Aggressive early management is critical. Intramuscular (IM) administration of epinephrine may be necessary. Do not readminister to patients who have had angioedema with ARBs.

• Electrolyte disturbances: Hyperkalemia may occur with ARBs; risk factors include renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, and concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salts. Use cautiously, if at all, with these agents and monitor potassium closely. Thiazide diuretics may cause hypokalemia, hypochloremic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hyponatremia.

• Gout: In certain patients with a history of gout, a familial predisposition to gout, or chronic renal failure, gout can be precipitated by hydrochlorothiazide. This risk may be increased with doses ≥25 mg (Gurwitz 1997).

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Hypersensitivity reactions may occur with hydrochlorothiazide. Risk is increased in patients with a history of allergy or bronchial asthma.

• Hypotension: During initiation of therapy, hypotension may occur, particularly in patients with heart failure or who are post-MI. Symptomatic hypotension may occur upon initiation in patients who are salt- or volume-depleted (eg, those treated with high-dose diuretics); correct volume depletion prior to administration. This transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide.

• Ocular effects: Hydrochlorothiazide may cause acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma, typically occurring within hours to weeks following initiation; discontinue therapy immediately in patients with acute decreases in visual acuity or ocular pain. Additional treatments may be needed if uncontrolled intraocular pressure persists. Risk factors may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy.

• Photosensitivity: Photosensitization may occur.

• Renal function deterioration: May be associated with deterioration of renal function and/or increases in serum creatinine, particularly in patients with low renal blood flow (eg, renal artery stenosis, heart failure) whose glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is dependent on efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by angiotensin II; deterioration may result in oliguria, acute renal failure, and progressive azotemia. Small increases in serum creatinine may occur following initiation; consider discontinuation only in patients with progressive and/or significant deterioration in renal function.

• Sulfonamide (“sulfa”) allergy: The FDA-approved product labeling for many medications containing a sulfonamide chemical group includes a broad contraindication in patients with a prior allergic reaction to sulfonamides. There is a potential for cross-reactivity between members of a specific class (eg, two antibiotic sulfonamides). However, concerns for cross-reactivity have previously extended to all compounds containing the sulfonamide structure (SO2NH2). An expanded understanding of allergic mechanisms indicates cross-reactivity between antibiotic sulfonamides and nonantibiotic sulfonamides may not occur or at the very least this potential is extremely low (Brackett 2004; Johnson 2005; Slatore 2004; Tornero 2004). In particular, mechanisms of cross-reaction due to antibody production (anaphylaxis) are unlikely to occur with nonantibiotic sulfonamides. T-cell-mediated (type IV) reactions (eg, maculopapular rash) are less well understood and it is not possible to completely exclude this potential based on current insights. In cases where prior reactions were severe (Stevens-Johnson syndrome/TEN), some clinicians choose to avoid exposure to these classes.

Disease-related concerns:

• Aortic/mitral stenosis: Use with caution in patients with significant aortic/mitral stenosis.

• Diabetes: Use hydrochlorothiazide with caution in patients with prediabetes or diabetes mellitus; may see a change in glucose control.

• Hepatic impairment: Use caution in patients with biliary obstructive disorders or severe hepatic impairment. In progressive or severe liver disease, avoid electrolyte and acid/base imbalances that might lead to hepatic encephalopathy/coma.

• Hypercalcemia: Thiazide diuretics may decrease renal calcium excretion; consider avoiding use in patients with hypercalcemia.

• Hypercholesterolemia: Use with caution in patients with moderate or high cholesterol concentrations; increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels have been reported with thiazides.

• Parathyroid disease: Thiazide diuretics reduce calcium excretion; pathologic changes in the parathyroid glands with hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia have been observed with prolonged use; should be discontinued prior to testing for parathyroid function.

• Renal artery stenosis: Use valsartan with caution in patients with unstented unilateral/bilateral renal artery stenosis. When unstented bilateral renal artery stenosis is present, use is generally avoided due to the elevated risk of deterioration in renal function unless possible benefits outweigh risks.

• Renal impairment: Use valsartan with caution with pre-existing renal insufficiency, and severe renal impairment. Avoid hydrochlorothiazide in severe renal disease (ineffective); may precipitate azotemia; discontinue or consider withholding if renal impairment occurs. Contraindicated in patients with anuria.

• Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Hydrochlorothiazide can cause SLE exacerbation or activation.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Pregnancy: [US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected.

• Surgical patients: In patients on chronic angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy, intraoperative hypotension may occur with induction and maintenance of general anesthesia; however, discontinuation of therapy prior to surgery is controversial. If continued preoperatively, avoidance of hypotensive agents during surgery is prudent (Hillis 2011).

Geriatric Considerations

See individual agents. Combination products are not recommended as first-line treatment. Use only if doses of individual agents correspond to the combination available. Hydrochlorothiazide is not effective in patients with a CrCl <30mL/minute; therefore, it may not be a useful agent in many elderly patients.

Pregnancy Risk Factor

D

Pregnancy Considerations

[US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected. Also see individual agents.

Breast-Feeding Considerations

Excretion of valsartan in breast milk is not known. Thiazide diuretics are found in breast milk. Due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in the nursing infant, the US manufacturer recommends a decision be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of treatment to the mother. See individual agents.

Briggs’ Drugs in Pregnancy & Lactation
Adverse Reactions

Percentages reported with combination product. Also see individual agents.

>10%: Renal: Increased blood urea nitrogen (15%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Hypotension (1%)

Central nervous system: Dizziness (6%; dose-related)

Endocrine & metabolic: Hypokalemia (3%)

Renal: Increased serum creatinine (2%)

Respiratory: Nasopharyngitis (2%)

Frequency not defined:

Cardiovascular: Chest pain, orthostatic hypotension, palpitations, peripheral edema, tachycardia

Central nervous system: Anxiety, drowsiness, fatigue, insomnia, paresthesia, vertigo

Dermatologic: Hyperhidrosis, skin rash

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, xerostomia

Genitourinary: Pollakiuria

Infection: Infection

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Arthralgia, myalgia, weakness

Otic: Tinnitus

Respiratory: Cough, dyspnea

Miscellaneous: Fever

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, constipation, decreased hematocrit, decreased hemoglobin, decreased libido, dehydration, depression, dysuria, epistaxis, flushing, gout, hyperkalemia, increased appetite, increased serum transaminases, neutropenia, pruritus, skin photosensitivity, syncope, vasculitis, visual disturbance

Metabolism/Transport Effects

Refer to individual components.

Drug Interactions 

Ajmaline: Sulfonamides may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ajmaline. Specifically, the risk for cholestasis may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Aliskiren: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Aliskiren may enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Aliskiren may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Management: Aliskiren use with ACEIs or ARBs in patients with diabetes is contraindicated. Combined use in other patients should be avoided, particularly when CrCl is less than 60 mL/min. If combined, monitor potassium, creatinine, and blood pressure closely. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Allopurinol: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the potential for allergic or hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Allopurinol. Specifically, Thiazide Diuretics may increase the concentration of Oxypurinol, an active metabolite of Allopurinol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When amifostine is used at chemotherapy doses, blood pressure lowering medications should be withheld for 24 hours prior to amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be withheld, amifostine should not be administered. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic). Risk X: Avoid combination

Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Angiotensin II: Receptor Blockers may diminish the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin II. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Management: In US labeling, use of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended. It is not clear if any other combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB would be any safer. Consider alternatives to the combination when possible. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Anticholinergic Agents: May increase the serum concentration of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antihepaciviral Combination Products: May increase the serum concentration of Valsartan. Management: Per antihepaciviral combination product US prescribing information, consider decreasing the valsartan dose and monitoring for evidence of hypotension and worsening renal function if these agents are used in combination. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]).Risk C: Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Benperidol: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Beta2-Agonists: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the absorption of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. The diuretic response is likewise decreased. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Brigatinib: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Brigatinib may enhance the bradycardic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bromperidol: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Bromperidol. Bromperidol may diminish the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk X: Avoid combination

Calcium Salts: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may decrease the excretion of Calcium Salts. Continued concomitant use can also result in metabolic alkalosis. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CarBAMazepine. Specifically, there may be an increased risk for hyponatremia. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cardiac Glycosides: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cardiac Glycosides. Specifically, cardiac glycoside toxicity may be enhanced by the hypokalemic and hypomagnesemic effect of thiazide diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Orally Inhaled): May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Systemic): May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cyclophosphamide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cyclophosphamide. Specifically, granulocytopenia may be enhanced. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dapoxetine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dexketoprofen: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sulfonamides. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dexmethylphenidate: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Diacerein: May enhance the therapeutic effect of Diuretics. Specifically, the risk for dehydration or hypokalemia may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diazoxide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dofetilide: HydroCHLOROthiazide may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dofetilide. HydroCHLOROthiazide may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Risk X: Avoid combination

Drospirenone: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Eltrombopag: May increase the serum concentration of OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Substrates. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Eplerenone: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Gemfibrozil: May increase the serum concentration of OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Substrates. See separate drug interaction monographs for agents listed as exceptions. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Heparin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Heparins (Low Molecular Weight): May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

HydroCHLOROthiazide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Valsartan. Valsartan may increase the serum concentration of HydroCHLOROthiazide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ipragliflozin: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Specifically, the risk for intravascular volume depletion may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ivabradine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Ivabradine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Levodopa-Containing Products: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa-Containing Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Levosulpiride: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Levosulpiride. Risk X: Avoid combination

Licorice: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lithium: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may decrease the excretion of Lithium. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lithium: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. Management: Lithium dosage reductions will likely be needed following the addition of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lormetazepam: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mecamylamine: Sulfonamides may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Mecamylamine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron). Specifically, thiazide diuretics may decrease the excretion of calcium, and continued concomitant use can also result in metabolic alkalosis. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Naftopidil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing): Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicergoline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nitroprusside: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Nitroprusside. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. The combination of these two agents may also significantly decrease glomerular filtration and renal function. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Opioid Agonists: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics. Opioid Agonists may diminish the therapeutic effect of Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

OXcarbazepine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OXcarbazepine. Specifically, there may be an increased risk for hyponatremia. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pholcodine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Pholcodine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Porfimer: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Porfimer. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Potassium Salts: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Promazine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Promazine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Quinagolide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Reboxetine: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the hyponatremic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sodium Phosphates: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with ARBs, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function closely. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sodium Phosphates: Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with diuretics, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, hydrate adequately and monitor fluid and renal status. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Systemic): Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Teriflunomide: May increase the serum concentration of OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Substrates. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tolvaptan: May increase the serum concentration of OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Substrates. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Topiramate: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Topiramate. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Topiramate. Management: Monitor for increased topiramate levels/adverse effects (e.g., hypokalemia) with initiation/dose increase of a thiazide diuretic. Closely monitor serum potassium concentrations with concomitant therapy. Topiramate dose reductions may be necessary. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Toremifene: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Toremifene. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Trimethoprim: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Valsartan: HydroCHLOROthiazide may enhance the hypotensive effect of Valsartan. Valsartan may increase the serum concentration of HydroCHLOROthiazide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Verteporfin: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Verteporfin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vitamin D Analogs: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Vitamin D Analogs. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Food Interactions

See individual agents.

Test Interactions

See individual agents.

Monitoring Parameters

Blood pressure, heart rate; serum electrolytes, renal function

Advanced Practitioners Physical Assessment/Monitoring

See individual agents.

Nursing Physical Assessment/Monitoring

See individual agents.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, oral: 80 mg/12.5 mg: Valsartan 80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg; 160 mg/12.5 mg: Valsartan 160 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg; 160 mg/25 mg: Valsartan 160 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg; 320 mg/12.5 mg: Valsartan 320 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg; 320 mg/25 mg: Valsartan 320 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg

Diovan HCT 80 mg/12.5 mg: Valsartan 80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg

Diovan HCT 160 mg/12.5 mg: Valsartan 160 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg

Diovan HCT 160 mg/25 mg: Valsartan 160 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg

Diovan HCT 320 mg/12.5 mg: Valsartan 320 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg

Diovan HCT 320 mg/25 mg: Valsartan 320 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg

Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification
  • C09DA03
Generic Available (US)

Yes

Pricing: US

Tablets (Diovan HCT Oral)

80-12.5 mg (per each): $10.60

160-12.5 mg (per each): $8.32

160-25 mg (per each): $9.44

320-12.5 mg (per each): $14.61

320-25 mg (per each): $16.58

Tablets (Valsartan-hydroCHLOROthiazide Oral)

80-12.5 mg (per each): $3.92 – $3.93

160-12.5 mg (per each): $4.27 – $4.28

160-25 mg (per each): $4.84 – $4.85

320-12.5 mg (per each): $5.41 – $5.42

320-25 mg (per each): $6.14 – $6.15

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer’s AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Mechanism of Action

Valsartan produces direct antagonism of the angiotensin II (AT2) receptors, unlike the ACE inhibitors. It displaces angiotensin II from the AT1 receptor and produces its blood pressure-lowering effects by antagonizing AT1-induced vasoconstriction, aldosterone release, catecholamine release, arginine vasopressin release, water intake, and hypertrophic responses. This action results in more efficient blockade of the cardiovascular effects of angiotensin II and fewer side effects than the ACE inhibitors.

Hydrochlorothiazide inhibits sodium reabsorption in the distal tubules causing increased excretion of sodium and water as well as potassium and hydrogen ions

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics

See individual agents.

Local Anesthetic/Vasoconstrictor Precautions

No information available to require special precautions

Effects on Dental Treatment

Key adverse event(s) related to dental treatment: Patient may experience orthostatic hypotension as they stand up after treatment; especially if lying in the dental chair for an extended period of time. Use caution with sudden changes in position during and after dental treatment.

Effects on Bleeding

No information available to require special precautions

Index Terms

Hydrochlorothiazide and Valsartan; Valsartan/Hydrochlorothiazide

References

American Geriatrics Society 2015 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society 2015 updated Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015;63(11):2227-2246. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13702.[PubMed 26446832]

Brackett CC, Singh H, Block JH. Likelihood and mechanisms of cross-allergenicity between sulfonamide antibiotics and other drugs containing a sulfonamide functional group. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24(7):856-870.[PubMed 15303450]

Cohn JN and Tognoni G, “Valsartan Heart Failure Trial Investigators. A Randomized Trial of the Angiotensin-Receptor Blocker Valsartan in Chronic Heart Failure,” N Engl J Med, 2001, 345(23):1667-75.[PubMed 11759645]

Dahlof B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, et al, “Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study (LIFE): A Randomised Trial Against Atenolol,” Lancet, 2002, 359(9311):995-1003.[PubMed 11937178]

Dickstein K and Kjekshus J, “Effects of Losartan and Captopril on Mortality and Morbidity in High-Risk Patients After Acute Myocardial Infarction: The OPTIMAAL Randomised Trial. Optimal Trial in Myocardial Infarction With Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan,” Lancet , 2002, 360(9335):752-60.[PubMed 12241832]

Diovan HCT (valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide) [prescribing information]. East Hanover, NJ: Novartis Pharmaceuticals; July 2015.

Diovan HCT (valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide) [product monograph]. Dorval, Quebec, Canada: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc; February 2019.

Epstein BJ and Gums JG, “Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Versus ACE Inhibitors: Prevention of Death and Myocardial Infarction in High-Risk Populations,” Ann Pharmacother, 2005, 39(3):470-80.[PubMed 15701766]

Granger CB, McMurray JJ, Yusuf S, et al, “Effects of Candesartan in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Left-Ventricular Systolic Function Intolerant to Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Inhibitors: The CHARM-Alternative Trial,” Lancet, 2003, 362(9386):772-6.[PubMed 13678870]

Gurwitz JH, Kalish SC, Bohn RL, et al. Thiazide diuretics and the initiation of anti-gout therapy. J Clin Epidemiol. 1997;50(8):953-959.[PubMed 9291881 ]

Hillis LD, Smith PK, Anderson JL, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA Guideline for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2011, 124(23):2610-42.[PubMed 22064600]

Johnson KK, Green DL, Rife JP, Limon L. Sulfonamide cross-reactivity: fact or fiction? [published correction appears in Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39(7-8):1373]. Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39(2):290-301.[PubMed 15644481]

McMurray JJ, Ostergren J, Swedberg K, et al, “Effects of Candesartan in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Left-Ventricular Systolic Function Taking Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Inhibitors: The CHARM-Added Trial,” Lancet, 2003, 362(9386):767-71.[PubMed 13678869]

Pfeffer MA, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ, et al, “Valsartan, Captopril, or Both in Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Heart Failure, Left Ventricular Dysfunction, or Both,” N Engl J Med, 2004, 350(2):203.

Pitt B, Poole-Wilson PA, Segal R, et al, “Effect of Losartan Compared With Captopril on Mortality in Patients With Symptomatic Heart Failure: Randomised Trial – The Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study ELITE II,” Lancet, 2000, 355(9215):1582-7.[PubMed 10821361]

Sipahi I, Debanne SM, Rowland DY, et al, “Angiotensin-Receptor Blockade and Risk of Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials,” Lancet Oncol, 2010, 11(7):627-36.[PubMed 20542468]

Slatore CG, Tilles SA. Sulfonamide hypersensitivity. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2004;24(3):477-490.[PubMed 15242722]

Tornero P, De Barrio M, Baeza ML, Herrero T. Cross-reactivity among p-amino group compounds in sulfonamide fixed drug eruption: diagnostic value of patch testing. Contact Dermatitis. 2004;51(2):57-62.[PubMed 15373844]

Brand Names: International

Aralter Plus (ES); Cardisar (ZW); Cardival Plus (BD); Co-Aginet (JO); Co-Bespres (BE); Co-Dio (JP); Co-Diopass (KR); Co-Diovan (AE, AT, AU, BG, BH, CH, CY, CZ, EE, ES, GR, HK, HR, ID, IL, JO, KW, LB, LT, LV, MT, MY, NL, NZ, PH, PK, PL, PT, QA, RU, SA, SG, SI, SK, TH, TR, TW, VN); Co-Diovane (BE, LU); Co-Dopcor (ZW); Co-Tareg (PH); Codiortan (KR); CoDiovan (DE, GB, IE, KR, MX, ZW); Codiqvan (KR); Corixil (NO); Cotareg (FR, IT, KR, TW); Covaratan (KR); Detension (KR); Diovan Comp (DK, IS, NO, SE); Diovan D (AR, PY, UY); Diovan HCT (BB, BR, CO, EC, PE, VE); Dizantin Plus (PH); Duotan (KR); Duoval (PH); Duovan (KR); Dynaval (ZW); Hapresval Plus (VN); Kalpress Plus (ES); Maxdioplus (KR); Miten Plus (ES); Nisisco (FR); Pexabrel H (CR, DO, GT, HN, NI, PA, SV); Sakord H (UA); Simultan D (EC); Tareg D (CL); Tensart HCT (LV); V-Van Plus (KR); Valazyd-H (PH); Valent-H (IN); Valsaprex-H (CO); Valsartan/HCT (EC); Valsgim-H (VN); Valsotens HCT (MT); Valtan H (PE); Valtan Plus (KR); Valtensin HCT (HK); Valzaar-H (ZW); Vector Plus (IL)

Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide (Patient Education – Adult Medication)
You must carefully read the “Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer” below in order to understand and correctly use this information
Pronunciation

(val SAR tan & hye droe klor oh THYE a zide)

Brand Names: US

Diovan HCT

Brand Names: Canada

Diovan HCT; Valsartan-HCT; Valsartan-HCTZ

Warning
  • Do not take if you are pregnant. Use during pregnancy may cause birth defects or loss of the unborn baby. If you get pregnant or plan on getting pregnant while taking this drug, call your doctor right away.
What is this drug used for?
  • It is used to treat high blood pressure.
  • It may be given to you for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.
What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take this drug?
  • If you have an allergy to valsartan, hydrochlorothiazide, or any other part of this drug.
  • If you are allergic to any drugs like this one, any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had, like rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs.
  • If you are taking dofetilide.
  • If you are not able to pass urine.
  • If you are taking a drug that has aliskiren in it and you also have high blood sugar (diabetes) or kidney problems. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if a drug you take has aliskiren in it.
  • If you are breast-feeding or plan to breast-feed.
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this drug.
  • Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take this drug with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.
What are some things I need to know or do while I take this drug?
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take this drug. This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • Avoid driving and doing other tasks or actions that call for you to be alert until you see how this drug affects you.
  • To lower the chance of feeling dizzy or passing out, rise slowly if you have been sitting or lying down. Be careful going up and down stairs.
  • If you have high blood sugar (diabetes), you will need to watch your blood sugar closely.
  • Have your blood pressure checked often. Talk with your doctor.
  • Have blood work checked as you have been told by the doctor. Talk with the doctor.
  • This drug may affect certain lab tests. Tell all of your health care providers and lab workers that you take this drug.
  • It may take a few weeks to see the full effect.
  • If you are taking a salt substitute that has potassium in it, a potassium-sparing diuretic, or a potassium product, talk with your doctor.
  • If you are on a low-salt or salt-free diet, talk with your doctor.
  • Talk with your doctor before using OTC products that may raise blood pressure. These include cough or cold drugs, diet pills, stimulants, ibuprofen or like products, and some natural products or aids.
  • Talk with your doctor before you drink alcohol or use other drugs and natural products that slow your actions.
  • Be careful in hot weather or while being active. Drink lots of fluids to stop fluid loss.
  • Tell your doctor if you have too much sweat, fluid loss, throwing up, or loose stools. This may lead to low blood pressure.
  • If you take cholestyramine or colestipol, talk with your pharmacist about how to take them with this drug.
  • Watch for gout attacks.
  • If you have lupus, this drug can make your lupus active or get worse. Tell your doctor right away if you get any new or worse signs.
  • If you are taking lithium, talk with your doctor. You may need to have your blood work checked more closely while you are taking it with this drug.
What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?
  • WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of high blood sugar like confusion, feeling sleepy, more thirst, more hungry, passing urine more often, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit.
  • Signs of fluid and electrolyte problems like mood changes, confusion, muscle pain or weakness, a heartbeat that does not feel normal, very bad dizziness or passing out, fast heartbeat, more thirst, seizures, feeling very tired or weak, not hungry, unable to pass urine or change in the amount of urine produced, dry mouth, dry eyes, or very bad upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
  • Swelling in the arms or legs.
  • Any skin change.
  • This drug can cause certain eye problems. If left untreated, this can lead to lasting eyesight loss. If eye problems happen, signs like change in eyesight or eye pain most often happen within hours to weeks of starting this drug. Call your doctor right away if you have these signs.
What are some other side effects of this drug?
  • All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:
  • Nose and throat irritation.
  • These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
  • You may report side effects to your national health agency.
How is this drug best taken?
  • Use this drug as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.
  • Take with or without food.
  • Take this drug at the same time of day.
  • To gain the most benefit, do not miss doses.
  • Keep taking this drug as you have been told by your doctor or other health care provider, even if you feel well.
  • This drug may cause you to pass urine more often. To keep from having sleep problems, try to take before 6 pm.
  • Drink lots of noncaffeine liquids unless told to drink less liquid by your doctor.
What do I do if I miss a dose?
  • Take a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
  • If it is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.
How do I store and/or throw out this drug?
  • Store at room temperature.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.
General drug facts
  • If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
  • Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else’s drugs.
  • Keep a list of all your drugs (prescription, natural products, vitamins, OTC) with you. Give this list to your doctor.
  • Talk with the doctor before starting any new drug, including prescription or OTC, natural products, or vitamins.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.