Pravastatin (Lexi-Drugs)

Pronunciation

(prav a STAT in)

Brand Names: US

Pravachol

Brand Names: Canada

ACT Pravastatin [DSC]; APO-Pravastatin; AURO-Pravastatin; BCI Pravastatin [DSC]; BIO-Pravastatin; DOM-Pravastatin; JAMP-Pravastatin; MAR-Pravastatin; MINT-Pravastatin; MYLAN-Pravastin [DSC]; PMS-Pravastatin; Pravachol; Priva-Pravastatin; RAN-Pravastatin; RIVA-Pravastatin; SANDOZ Pravastatin; TEVA-Pravastatin

Dosing: Adult

Note: Doses should be individualized according to the baseline LDL-cholesterol levels, the recommended goal of therapy, and patient response; adjustments should be made at intervals of 4 weeks or more; doses may need adjusted based on concomitant medications.

Hyperlipidemias, primary prevention of coronary events, secondary prevention of cardiovascular events (also see ACC/AHA Blood Cholesterol Guideline recommendations):Oral: Initial: 40 mg once daily; titrate dosage to response (maximum dose: 80 mg/day)

Prevention of cardiovascular disease/reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: Oral:

ACC/AHA Blood Cholesterol Guideline recommendations (ACC/AHA [Grundy 2018]; ACC/AHA [Stone 2013]):

Note: When choosing to initiate therapy and selecting dose-intensity, consider atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk, risk-enhancing factors, possibility for side effects, and drug interactions.

Primary prevention:

LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL and age 20 to 75 years: High-intensity therapy necessary; use alternate statin therapy (eg, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin)

Diabetes, age 40 to 75 years, and an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk <7.5%: Moderate-intensity therapy: 40 to 80 mg once daily

Diabetes, age 40 to 75 years, and an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5%: High-intensity therapy necessary; use alternate statin therapy (eg, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin)

LDL-C 70 to 189 mg/dL, age 40 to 75 years, and an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5%: Moderate- to high-intensity therapy: 40 to 80 mg once daily or consider using high-intensity statin therapy (eg, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin)

Secondary prevention:

Patient has clinical ASCVD (eg, coronary heart disease, stroke/TIA, or peripheral arterial disease presumed to be of atherosclerotic origin) or is post-CABG (AHA [Kulik 2015]) and:

Age ≤75 years: High-intensity therapy necessary; use alternate statin therapy (eg, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin)

Age >75 years: Moderate- to high-intensity therapy: 40 to 80 mg once daily or consider using high-intensity statin therapy (eg, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin); if moderate-intensity therapy is started and tolerated, increase to a high-intensity statin therapy within 3 months (Rosenson 2019).

US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations (USPSTF 2016): Age 40 to 75 years, no history of CVD, with ≥1 CVD risk factor (dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, or smoking), and calculated 10-year CVD event risk of ≥10%:

Primary prevention:

Low-intensity therapy: 10 to 20 mg once daily

Moderate-intensity therapy: 40 to 80 mg once daily

Note: These recommendations do not pertain to patients with very high cholesterol levels (eg, LDL >190 mg/dL, familial hypercholesterolemia; were excluded from primary prevention trials); use clinical judgment in the treatment of these patients. In patients with a calculated 10-year CVD event risk of 7.5% to 10%, statin use may be considered based on patient characteristics.

Dosage adjustment for pravastatin with concomitant medications:

Clarithromycin: Maximum pravastatin dose: 40 mg/day.

Cyclosporine: Initial pravastatin dose: 10 mg once daily, titrate with caution (maximum dose: 20 mg/day)

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment: Adult

Mild to moderate impairment: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling; use with caution.

Severe impairment: Initial: 10 mg once daily

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

Active hepatic disease or unexplained persistent elevations of serum transaminases: Use is contraindicated.

Chronic liver disease: Some experts suggest starting at a low dose (eg, 10 mg once daily) and adjusting gradually based on monitoring of aminotransferase levels (Rosenson 2018).

Dosing: Adjustment for Toxicity: Adult

Severe muscle symptoms or fatigue: Promptly discontinue use; evaluate CPK, creatinine, and urinalysis for myoglobinuria (ACC/AHA [Stone 2013]).

Mild to moderate muscle symptoms: Discontinue use until symptoms can be evaluated; evaluate patient for conditions that may increase the risk for muscle symptoms (eg, hypothyroidism, reduced renal or hepatic function, rheumatologic disorders such as polymyalgia rheumatica, steroid myopathy, vitamin D deficiency, primary muscle diseases). Upon resolution, resume the original or lower dose of pravastatin. If muscle symptoms recur, discontinue pravastatin use. After muscle symptom resolution, may then use a low dose of a different statin; gradually increase if tolerated. In the absence of continued statin use, if muscle symptoms or elevated CPK continues after 2 months, consider other causes of muscle symptoms. If determined to be due to another condition aside from statin use, may resume statin therapy at the original dose (ACC/AHA [Stone 2013]).

Dosing: Pediatric

Note: Dosage should be individualized according to the baseline LDL-C level, the recommended goal of therapy, and patient response; adjustments should be made at intervals of 4 weeks.

Hyperlipidemia or heterozygous familial and nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia:

Note: Begin treatment if, after adequate trial (6 to 12 months) of intensive lifestyle modification emphasizing body weight normalization and diet, the following are present (AACE [Jellinger 2017]):

LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL or

LDL-C remains ≥160 mg/dL and two or more cardiovascular risk factors: Family history of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (<55 years of age), overweight, obesity, or other elements of insulin resistance syndrome or

LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL and diabetes mellitus (Daniels 2008; NHLBI 2011)

Therapy may also be considered for children 8 to 9 years of age meeting the above criteria or for children with diabetes mellitus and LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL (Daniels 2008).

Children and Adolescents 8 to 13 years: Oral: 20 mg once daily; lower doses (5 and 10 mg/day) have been evaluated and less efficacy observed compared to 20 mg doses (NHLBI 2011; Vuorio 2017); doses >20 mg have not been studied (Vuorio 2017)

Adolescents 14 to 18 years: Oral: 40 mg once daily; lower doses have been evaluated and less efficacy observed; doses >40 mg have not been studied (NHLBI 2011; Vuorio 2017)

Dosing adjustment for pravastatin with concomitant medications: Clarithromycin, cyclosporine: Children ≥8 years and Adolescents: There are no recommendations in the manufacturer’s labeling for patients ≤18 years; based on experience in adult patients, dosage reduction suggested with concomitant clarithromycin or cyclosporine.

Dosing adjustment for toxicity: Muscle symptoms (potential myopathy): Children ≥8 years and Adolescents: Discontinue use until symptoms can be evaluated; check CPK level; based on experience in adult patients, also evaluate patient for conditions that may increase the risk for muscle symptoms (eg, hypothyroidism, reduced renal or hepatic function, rheumatologic disorders such as polymyalgia rheumatica, steroid myopathy, vitamin D deficiency, or primary muscle diseases). Upon resolution (symptoms and any associated CPK abnormalities), resume the original or consider a lower dose of pravastatin and retitrate. If muscle symptoms recur, discontinue pravastatin use. After muscle symptom resolution, may then reinitiate a different statin at an initial low dose; gradually increase if tolerated. Based on experience in adult patients, if muscle symptoms or elevated CPK persists for 2 months in the absence of continued statin use, consider other causes of muscle symptoms. If determined to be due to another condition aside from statin use, may resume statin therapy at the original dose (NHLBI 2011; Stone 2013).

Dosing: Renal Impairment: Pediatric

There are no pediatric specific recommendations; based on experience in adult patients, dosing adjustment suggested

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Pediatric

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer labeling; contraindicated in active liver disease or in patients with unexplained persistent elevations of serum transaminases.

Use: Labeled Indications

Hyperlipidemia

Dysbetalipoproteinemia: Treatment of primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson type III) in patients who do not respond adequately to diet.

Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: Adjunct to diet in children ≥8 years and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) if after an adequate trial of diet therapy the following findings are present: LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL or LDL ≥160 mg/dL with positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), or with 2 or more other CVD risk factors.

Hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia: Adjunct to diet to reduce elevated total cholesterol, LDL-C, apo B, and triglyceride (TG) levels and to increase HDL-C in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb).

Limitations of use: Has not been studied in conditions where the major lipid abnormality is elevation of chylomicrons (Fredrickson types I and V).

Prevention of cardiovascular disease

Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: To reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, revascularization procedures and cardiovascular mortality in hypercholesterolemic patients without established coronary heart disease (CHD).

Secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: To slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis; to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, revascularization procedures, and total mortality; and to reduce the risk of stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA) in patients with established CHD.

Use: Off-Label: Adult

  Cardiac risk reduction for noncardiac surgery (perioperative therapy)Level of Evidence [G]

Based on the 2014 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and management of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, perioperative initiation of statins is reasonable for patients undergoing vascular surgery and may be considered in patients with clinical indications according to guideline-directed medical therapy who are undergoing elevated risk procedures. In patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery who are currently receiving a statin, the statin should be continued.

  Noncardioembolic stroke/Transient ischemic attack (secondary prevention)Level of Evidence [G]

Based on the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack, statin therapy with intensive lipid-lowering effects is recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and future cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA presumed to be of atherosclerotic origin who have an LDL-C concentration ≥100 mg/dL (with or without evidence for other clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD]) or who have an LDL-C concentration <100 mg/dL (without evidence for other clinical ASCVD).

Level of Evidence Definitions
  Level of Evidence Scale
Clinical Practice Guidelines

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery:

“AHA Scientific Statement, Secondary Prevention After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery,” February 2015

AHA/ACC/HRS, “2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation,” March 2014

Diabetes Mellitus:

AACE/ACE, “Consensus Statement on the Comprehensive Type 2 Diabetes Management Algorithm- 2019 Executive Summary,” January 2019

American Diabetes Association, “Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2019,” January 2019

Diabetes Canada, “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada,” 2018

Dyslipidemia:

AACE/ACE, “Guidelines for Management of Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease,” April 2017

ACC/AHA, “2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults,” November 2013

AHA/ACC, “Guideline on the management of blood cholesterol,” November 2018

Canadian Cardiovascular Society, “2012 Update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dyslipidemia for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in the Adult,” 2012

NLA, “National Lipid Association Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia” Part 1: April 2015; Part 2: December 2015

The Endocrine Society, “Evaluation and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline,” September 2012

The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), “Lipid Management in Chronic Kidney Disease: Synopsis of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2013 Clinical Practice Guideline,” December 2013

Ischemic Heart Disease:

ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS, “2014 Focused Update of the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease,” July 2014

ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS, “2012 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease,” November 2012

Stroke:

AHA/ASA, “Guidelines for Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack,” May 2014.

“Guidelines for the Primary Prevention of Stroke,” December 2010

Surgery:

ACC/AHA, “2014 ACC/AHA Guideline on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Management of Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery,” August 2014

Administration: Oral

Administer without regard to meals.

Administration: Pediatric

Oral: May be taken without regard to meals or time of day; administer at least 1 hour before or 4 hours after bile acid resins.

Dietary Considerations

Before initiation of therapy, patients should be placed on a standard cholesterol-lowering diet for 6 weeks and the diet should be continued during drug therapy.

Red yeast rice contains variable amounts of several compounds that are structurally similar to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, primarily monacolin K (or mevinolin) which is structurally identical to lovastatin; concurrent use of red yeast rice with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may increase the incidence of adverse and toxic effects (Lapi 2008; Smith 2003).

Storage/Stability

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from light.

Medication Patient Education with HCAHPS Considerations

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience headache, dizziness, loss of strength and energy, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, rhinitis, pharyngitis, cough, or rhinorrhea. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of liver problems (dark urine, feeling tired, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin or eyes), angina, vision changes, urinary retention, change in amount of urine passed, muscle pain, muscle tenderness, or muscle weakness (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

Medication Safety Issues
  Sound-alike/look-alike issues:
Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to pravastatin or any component of the formulation; active liver disease; unexplained persistent elevations of serum transaminases; pregnancy; breast-feeding

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Diabetes mellitus: Increases in HbA1c and fasting blood glucose have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors; however, the benefits of statin therapy far outweigh the risk of dysglycemia.

• Endocrine effects: Reduced cholesterol synthesis as a result of therapy could theoretically lead to reduced adrenal or gonadal steroid hormone production; clinical trial data is inconsistent in regards to the effect on basal steroid hormone levels. Patients with signs/symptoms of endocrine dysfunction should be evaluated as clinically indicated; use caution with concomitant medications (eg, spironolactone, cimetidine, ketoconazole) that may reduce steroid hormone levels/activity.

• Hepatotoxicity: Postmarketing reports of fatal and nonfatal hepatic failure are rare. If serious hepatotoxicity with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment, interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not identified, do not restart pravastatin. Liver enzyme tests should be obtained at baseline and as clinically indicated; routine periodic monitoring of liver enzymes is not necessary. Ethanol may enhance the potential of adverse hepatic effects; instruct patients to avoid excessive ethanol consumption.

• Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM): IMNM, an autoimmune-mediated myopathy, has been reported (rarely) with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy. IMNM presents as proximal muscle weakness with elevated CPK levels, which persists despite discontinuation of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy; additionally, muscle biopsy may show necrotizing myopathy with limited inflammation. Immunosuppressive therapy (eg, corticosteroids, azathioprine) may be used for treatment.

• Myopathy/rhabdomyolysis: Rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria and/or myopathy have been reported; patients should be monitored closely. This risk is dose-related and is increased with concurrent use of erythromycin, cyclosporine, fibric acid derivatives (eg, gemfibrozil), or niacin (doses ≥1 g/day). Temporarily withhold therapy in patients experiencing conditions predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis (eg, sepsis, hypotension, major surgery, trauma, uncontrolled epilepsy; severe metabolic, endocrine, or electrolyte disorders). Discontinue therapy in any patient in which CPK levels are markedly elevated (>10 times ULN) or if myopathy is suspected/diagnosed. Use caution in patients with inadequately treated hypothyroidism, and those taking other drugs associated with myopathy (eg, colchicine); these patients are predisposed to myopathy. Patients should be instructed to report unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, weakness, or brown urine.

Disease-related concerns:

• Hepatic impairment and/or ethanol use: Use with caution in patients who consume large amounts of ethanol or have a history of liver disease. Use is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease or unexplained transaminase elevations.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment; these patients are predisposed to myopathy.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special Populations:

• Elderly: Use with caution in patients with advanced age, these patients are predisposed to myopathy.

• Surgical patients: The manufacturer recommends temporary discontinuation for elective major surgery, acute medical or surgical conditions, or in any patient experiencing an acute or serious condition predisposing to renal failure (eg, sepsis, hypotension, trauma, uncontrolled seizures). Based on current research and clinical guidelines, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors should be continued in the perioperative period for noncardiac and cardiac surgery (ACC/AHA [Fleisher 2014]; ACC/AHA [Hillis 2011]). Perioperative discontinuation of statin therapy is associated with an increased risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Has not been studied in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (statins may be less effective due to lack of functional LDL receptors).

• Hyperlipidemia: Secondary causes of hyperlipidemia should be ruled out prior to therapy.

Geriatric Considerations

Effective and well tolerated in the elderly, although age ≥65 years is a risk factor for myopathy. No specific dosage recommendations. Clearance is reduced in the elderly, resulting in an increase in AUC between 25% to 50%; however, substantial accumulation is not expected.

The definition of and, therefore, when to treat hyperlipidemia in the elderly is a controversial issue. According to the ACC/AHA, high-intensity statin doses are indicated for patients <75 years of age with existing clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD); patients without clinical ASCVD if LDL-C is >190 mg/dL; patients without clinical ASCVD who are 40-75 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and with an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5%. Patients 40-75 years with a 10-year ASCVD risk >7.5% are candidates for moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy. Patients >75 years with existing clinical ASCVD are candidates for moderate-intensity statin doses. There are no data or recommendations on managing patients >75 years without clinical ASCVD who have type 1 or 2 diabetes or with a 10-year risk of ASCVD >7.5% (with or without diabetes) (Stone 2013). It is the authors’ belief that pharmacologic treatment be reserved for those whom the benefits of treatment are believed to outweigh the potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and cost of treatment. The risks of polypharmacy and life expectancy must also be taken into consideration. An interesting post hoc analysis of the ALLHAT-LLT noted no benefit to the all-cause mortality endpoint in those receiving pravastatin 40 mg versus usual care (no prescribed therapy) for primary prevention in older adults (≥65 years) with moderate dyslipidemia and hypertension (Han 2017). Importantly, these are hypothesis-generating, yet intriguing, findings and should be interpreted with caution. However, the results of the post hoc analysis align intriguingly with a prospective, population-based cohort study in older adults which showed lower noncardiovascular mortality in those whom had higher total cholesterol levels (Newson 2011). It must be noted that efficacy of pravastatin for secondary prevention is well documented (Shepherd 2002). While concerning reports of cognitive impairment and dementia associated with statin use have been published, it should be noted recent research has failed to support this association (Mortensen 2018). Despite this, all reports of cognitive impairment or slowing should be investigated, especially if these complaints come shortly after statin initiation.

Pregnancy Considerations

Pravastatin is contraindicated in pregnant females or those who may become pregnant.

Pravastatin was found to cross the placenta in an ex vivo study using term human placentas (Nanovskaya 2013). There are reports of congenital anomalies following maternal use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in pregnancy; however, maternal disease, differences in specific agents used, and the low rates of exposure limit the interpretation of the available data (Godfrey 2012; Lecarpentier 2012). Cholesterol biosynthesis may be important in fetal development; serum cholesterol and triglycerides increase normally during pregnancy. The discontinuation of lipid lowering medications temporarily during pregnancy is not expected to have significant impact on the long term outcomes of primary hypercholesterolemia treatment.

Pravastatin should be discontinued immediately if an unplanned pregnancy occurs during treatment.

Adequate contraception is recommended if an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor is required in females of reproductive potential. Females planning a pregnancy should discontinue the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor 1 to 2 months prior to attempting to conceive (AHA/ACC [Grundy 2018]).

Breast-Feeding Considerations

Use of pravastatin in breastfeeding women is contraindicated.

A small amount of pravastatin is present in breast milk. Data is available from eight breastfeeding women administered pravastatin 20 mg twice daily for 2.5 days. After the fifth dose, maximum maternal serum concentrations were ~40 ng/mL (pravastatin) and ~26 ng/mL (metabolite) and maximum milk concentrations were ~3.9 ng/mL (pravastatin) and ~2.1 ng/mL (metabolite). Maximum milk concentrations were detected ~3 hours after the dose (Pan 1988).

Briggs’ Drugs in Pregnancy & Lactation
Adverse Reactions

As reported in short-term trials; safety and tolerability with long-term use were similar to placebo.

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Chest pain (4%)

Central nervous system: Headache (2% to 6%), fatigue (4%), dizziness (1% to 3%)

Dermatologic: Skin rash (4%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (≤7%), vomiting (≤7%), diarrhea (6%), heartburn (3%)

Genitourinary: Cystitis (interstitial; Huang 2015)

Hepatic: Increased serum transaminases (>3x normal on 2 occasions: 1%)

Infection: Influenza (2%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Myalgia (2%)

Respiratory: Cough (3%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Alopecia, amnesia (reversible), anaphylaxis, angioedema, cataract, change in libido, cholestatic jaundice, cognitive dysfunction (reversible), confusion (reversible), cranial nerve dysfunction, decreased appetite, dermatitis, dermatomyositis, dysgeusia, edema, erythema multiforme, fever, flushing, fulminant hepatic necrosis, gynecomastia, hemolytic anemia, hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic neoplasm, hepatitis, hypersensitivity reaction, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, insomnia, lupus-like syndrome, memory impairment (reversible), myasthenia, myopathy, neuropathy, pancreatitis, paresthesia, peripheral nerve palsy, polymyalgia rheumatica, positive ANA titer, pruritus, purpura, rhabdomyolysis, sexual disorder, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, tremor, urticaria, vasculitis, vertigo, xeroderma

Allergy and Idiosyncratic Reactions
Metabolism/Transport Effects

Substrate of CYP3A4 (minor), OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3), P-glycoprotein/ABCB1; Note: Assignment of Major/Minor substrate status based on clinically relevant drug interaction potential

Drug Interactions 

Acipimox: May enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antihepaciviral Combination Products: May increase the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Management: Limit the pravastatin dose to a maximum of 40 mg per day when used with antihepaciviral combination products and monitor patients for evidence of pravastatin toxicities (eg, myopathy). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Asunaprevir: May increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bezafibrate: May enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Bezafibrate may increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). More specifically, bezafibrate may increase the serum concentration of fluvastatin Management: Monitor patients closely for myopathy with concomitant use of bezafibrate and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Concomitant use is contraindicated in patients predisposed to myopathy and alternative therapy should be considered. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Management: Administer pravastatin at least 1 hour before or 4 hours after administration of bile-acid resins (eg, cholestyramine, colestipol, colesevelam) to minimize the risk for any significant interaction. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

CarBAMazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ciprofibrate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Management: Avoid the use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and ciprofibrate if possible. If concomitant therapy is considered, benefits should be carefully weighed against the risks, and patients should be monitored closely for signs/symptoms of muscle toxicity. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Clarithromycin: May increase the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Management: Limit pravastatin to a maximum of 40 mg/day (for adults) when used in combination with clarithromycin. If this combination is used, monitor patients more closely for evidence of pravastatin toxicity. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Colchicine: May enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Colchicine may increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Pravastatin may increase the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Management: Limit pravastatin to 20 mg/day in patients who are also receiving cyclosporine. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Daclatasvir: May increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk C: Monitor therapy

DAPTOmycin: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of DAPTOmycin. Specifically, the risk of skeletal muscle toxicity may be increased. Management: Consider temporarily stopping HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy prior to daptomycin. If used together, regular (i.e., at least weekly) monitoring of CPK concentrations is recommended. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Darunavir: May increase the serum concentration of Pravastatin. This effect has been demonstrated with darunavir/ritonavir and may occur with darunavir/cobicistat. The individual contributions of darunavir, ritonavir, and cobicistat are unknown. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Efavirenz: May decrease the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Eltrombopag: May increase the serum concentration of OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Substrates. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Erythromycin (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fenofibrate and Derivatives: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fosphenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Specifically, the risk for muscle toxicities, including rhabdomyolysis may be significantly increased. Management: Avoid concurrent use whenever possible. Use is listed as contraindicated in product characteristic summaries in several countries, although UK labeling suggests that use could be considered under exceptional circumstances and with close supervision. Risk X: Avoid combination

Gemfibrozil: May enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of Pravastatin. Gemfibrozil may increase the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir: May increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Management: Use the lowest statin dose possible if combined with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir and monitor for increased statin effects/toxicities. Avoid concomitant use with atorva-, simva-, or lovastatin. Limit rosuvastatin to 10 mg daily and reduce pravastatin dose 50% Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Itraconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lanthanum: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins) may decrease the serum concentration of Lanthanum. Management: Administer HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors at least two hours before or after lanthanum. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Letermovir: May increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nelfinavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Niacin: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Niacinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk C: Monitor therapy

PARoxetine: Pravastatin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of PARoxetine. Specifically, blood glucose elevations may occur with the combination. Risk C: Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins) may enhance the hepatotoxic effect of PAZOPanib. Specifically, the risk for increased serum transaminase concentrations may be increased. Management: Simvastatin is specifically implicated in the interaction. There is a lack of data regarding risk with other statins, but caution appears warranted with any statins. Atorvastatin should be avoided due to P-gp inhibition. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Raltegravir: May enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Red Yeast Rice: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Risk X: Avoid combination

Repaglinide: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins) may increase the serum concentration of Repaglinide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

RifAMPin: May decrease the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rifamycin Derivatives: May decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Management: Consider use of noninteracting antilipemic agents (note: pitavastatin concentrations may increase with rifamycin treatment). Monitor for altered HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor effects. Rifabutin and fluvastatin, or possibly pravastatin, may pose lower risk. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Rupatadine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Specifically, the risk for increased CPK and/or other muscle toxicities may be increased.Risk C: Monitor therapy

Saquinavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Pravastatin. This effect has only been demonstrated with saquinavir/ritonavir. The individual contributions of saquinavir and ritonavir are unknown. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: May increase the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Telithromycin: May increase the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Teriflunomide: May increase the serum concentration of OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Substrates. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tolvaptan: May increase the serum concentration of OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Substrates. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Trabectedin: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins) may enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of Trabectedin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins) may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Voxilaprevir: May increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Management: Use the lowest statin dose possible if combined with voxilaprevir and monitor patients for increased statin effects/toxicities. Avoid concomitant use of voxilaprevir with rosuvastatin or pitavastatin, and limit pravastatin doses to 40 mg daily. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Monitoring Parameters

ACC/AHA Blood Cholesterol Guideline recommendations (ACC/AHA [Grundy 2018]; ACC/AHA [Stone 2013]):

Lipid panel (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides): Lipid profile (fasting or nonfasting) before initiating treatment. Fasting lipid profile should be rechecked 4 to 12 weeks after starting therapy and every 3 to 12 months thereafter. If 2 consecutive LDL levels are <40 mg/dL, consider decreasing the dose.

Hepatic transaminase levels: Baseline measurement of hepatic transaminase levels (AST and ALT); measure AST, ALT, total bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase if symptoms suggest hepatotoxicity (eg, unusual fatigue or weakness, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, dark-colored urine or yellowing of skin or sclera) during therapy.

CPK: CPK should not be routinely measured. Baseline CPK measurement is reasonable for some individuals (eg, family history of statin intolerance or muscle disease, clinical presentation, concomitant drug therapy that may increase risk of myopathy). May measure CPK in any patient with symptoms suggestive of myopathy (pain, tenderness, stiffness, cramping, weakness, or generalized fatigue).

Evaluate for new-onset diabetes mellitus during therapy; if diabetes develops, continue statin therapy and encourage adherence to a heart-healthy diet, physical activity, a healthy body weight, and tobacco cessation.

If patient develops a confusional state or memory impairment, may evaluate patient for nonstatin causes (eg, exposure to other drugs), systemic and neuropsychiatric causes, and the possibility of adverse effects associated with statin therapy.

Reference Range

Treatment goals: May vary depending on clinical condition, different clinical practice guidelines and expert opinion. Refer to clinical practice guidelines for specific treatment goals.

Advanced Practitioners Physical Assessment/Monitoring

Rule out secondary causes of hyperlipidemia prior to initiation. Assess other medicines patient may be taking; alternate therapy or dosage adjustments may be needed. Obtain liver enzyme tests prior to therapy and as needed. Obtain CPK when myopathy is considered or in high-risk patients. Follow-up with lipid panel within 4 weeks of initiation or titration.

Nursing Physical Assessment/Monitoring

Check ordered labs and report abnormalities. Monitor for and educate patient to report signs and symptoms of myopathy (muscle pain, weakness, fatigue). Consider dietary assessment and plan for teaching.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral, as sodium:

Pravachol: 20 mg

Pravachol: 40 mg [contains fd&c blue #1 aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #10 aluminum lake]

Pravachol: 80 mg

Generic: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg

Dosage Forms: Canada

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Tablet, Oral, as sodium:

Pravachol: 10 mg [DSC], 20 mg

Pravachol: 40 mg [contains BRILLIANT BLUE FCF (FD&C BLUE #1), FD&C YELLOW #10 (QUINOLINE YELLOW)]

Generic: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg

Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification
  • C10AA03
Generic Available (US)

Yes

Pricing: US

Tablets (Pravachol Oral)

20 mg (per each): $4.63

40 mg (per each): $6.79

80 mg (per each): $6.79

Tablets (Pravastatin Sodium Oral)

10 mg (per each): $2.61 – $3.22

20 mg (per each): $2.83 – $3.27

40 mg (per each): $4.17 – $4.79

80 mg (per each): $4.79

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer’s AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Mechanism of Action

Pravastatin is a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo cholesterol synthesis. In addition to the ability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors to decrease levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), they also possess pleiotropic properties including improved endothelial function, reduced inflammation at the site of the coronary plaque, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and anticoagulant effects (de Denus 2002; Ray 2005).

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics

Onset of action: Several days

Peak effect: 4 weeks

LDL-reduction: 40 mg/day: 34% (for each doubling of this dose, LDL-C is lowered by ~6%)

Absorption: Rapidly absorbed; average absorption 34%

Distribution: Vd: 0.46 L/kg

Protein binding: ~50%

Metabolism: Hepatic multiple metabolites; primary metabolite is 3 alpha-hydroxy-iso-pravastatin (2.5% to 10% activity of parent drug); extensive first-pass metabolism

Bioavailability: 17%

Half-life elimination:

Children and Adolescents (4.9 to 15.6 years): 1.6 hours; range: 0.85 to 4.2 hours (Hedman 2003)

Adults: 77 hours (including all metabolites); Pravastatin: ~2 to 3 hours (Pan 1990); 3 alpha-hydroxy-iso-pravastatin: ~1.5 hours (Gustavson 2005)

Time to peak, serum: 1 to 1.5 hours

Excretion: Feces (70%); urine (~20%, 8% as unchanged drug)

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics: Additional Considerations

Geriatric: Mean AUC was approximately 27% greater and mean cumulative urinary excretion was approximately 19% lower in elderly men. Mean AUC was approximately 46%higher and mean cumulative urinary excretion was approximately 18% lower in elderly women.

Local Anesthetic/Vasoconstrictor Precautions

No information available to require special precautions

Effects on Dental Treatment

Key adverse event(s) related to dental treatment: Assess unusual presentations of muscle weakness or myopathy resulting from lipid therapy such as patient having a difficult time brushing teeth or weakness with chewing. Refer patient back to their physician for evaluation and adjustment of lipid therapy.

Effects on Bleeding

No information available to require special precautions

Index Terms

Pravastatin Sodium

FDA Approval Date
October 31, 1991
References

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Jellinger PS, Handelsman Y, Rosenblit PD, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology guidelines for management of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Endocr Pract. 2017;23(suppl 2):1-87. doi: 10.4158/EP171764.APPGL.[PubMed 28437620]

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Koren MJ, Smith DG, Hunninghake DB, et al, “The Cost of Reaching National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Goals in Hypercholesterolaemic Patients. A Comparison of Atorvastatin, Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Fluvastatin,” Pharmacoeconomics, 1998, 14(1):59-70.[PubMed 10182195]

Kulik A, Ruel M, Jneid H, et al; American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia. Secondary prevention after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;131 (10):927-964.[PubMed 25679302]

Lapi F, Gallo E, Bernasconi S, et al. Myopathies associated with red yeast rice and liquorice: spontaneous reports from the Italian Surveillance System of Natural Health Products. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;66(4):572-574.[PubMed 18637891]

LaRosa JC, Grundy SM, Waters DD, et al, “Intensive Lipid Lowering With Atorvastatin in Patients With Stable Coronary Disease,” N Engl J Med, 2005, 352(14):1425-35.[PubMed 15755765]

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Brand Names: International

Astin (MX); Brakhor (MX); Bristacol (ES); Brufincol (CR, DO, GT, HN, MX, NI, PA, SV); Cholespar (ID); Cholestate (EG); Cholstat (AU); Col-Alphar (MX); Colpradin (CR, DO, GT, HN, MX, NI, PA, SV); Elisor (FR); Emipastin (CR, DO, GT, HN, MX, NI, PA, SV); Genoestatina (MX); Kenstatin (MX); Koloskol (ID); Lipemol (ES); Lipista (VN); Lipizad (EG); Liplat (ES); Lipostat (AE, AU, BG, BH, CZ, EE, EG, GB, HU, IE, JO, KW, LB, PL, QA, SA); Liprevil (DE); Loretsin (MX); Lowchol (JO); Mechol (TW); Mevalotin (CN, DE, ID, JP, KR); Mevalotin Protect (TH); Novales (ID); Novina (MX); Pitaduce (KR); Prastan (KR); Pratin (MY, TW); Prava (ZA); Prava 40 (TH); Pravachol (AT, AU, BB, BM, BS, BZ, DK, FI, GR, GY, HK, JM, NO, NZ, PE, PK, SE, SR, TR, TT, VE); Pravacol (AR, BR, CL, EC, MX, PE, PT); Pravalip (IL); Pravamel (IE); Pravaselect (IT); Pravasin (DE, LU); Pravat (IE); Pravator (IN, RO); Pravaz (PH); Pravitin (IE); Pravyl (CO); Pu Hui Zhi (CN); Sanaprav (AT, IT); Selectin (IT); Selektine (NL); Selipran (AT, CH); Stavacor (LB); Tissulest (MX); Vasten (FR)

Pravastatin (Patient Education – Adult Medication)
You must carefully read the “Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer” below in order to understand and correctly use this information
Pronunciation

(prav a STAT in)

Brand Names: US

Pravachol

Brand Names: Canada

Pravachol

What is this drug used for?
  • It is used to lower bad cholesterol and raise good cholesterol (HDL).
  • It is used to lower triglycerides.
  • It is used to slow the progress of heart disease.
  • It is used to prevent heart attacks.
  • It is used to prevent strokes.
  • It may be given to you for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.
What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take this drug?
  • If you have an allergy to pravastatin or any other part of this drug.
  • If you are allergic to any drugs like this one, any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had, like rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs.
  • If you are pregnant or may be pregnant. Do not take this drug if you are pregnant.
  • If you are breast-feeding. Do not breast-feed while you take this drug.
  • If you are taking gemfibrozil.
  • If you have any of these health problems: Active liver disease or a rise in liver enzymes.
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this drug.
  • Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take this drug with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.
What are some things I need to know or do while I take this drug?
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take this drug. This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • Have blood work checked as you have been told by the doctor. Talk with the doctor.
  • Follow the diet and workout plan that your doctor told you about.
  • Do not take more than what your doctor told you to take. Taking more than you are told may raise your chance of very bad side effects.
  • If you have high blood sugar (diabetes), you will need to watch your blood sugar closely.
  • If you take cholestyramine or colestipol, take them at least 4 hours before or 1 hour after this drug.
  • Avoid or limit drinking alcohol to less than 3 drinks a day. Drinking too much alcohol may raise your chance of liver disease.
  • If you are 65 or older, use this drug with care. You could have more side effects.
  • This drug may cause harm to the unborn baby if you take it while you are pregnant. If you are pregnant or you get pregnant while taking this drug, call your doctor right away.
  • Use birth control that you can trust to prevent pregnancy while taking this drug.
What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?
  • WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Chest pain.
  • Change in eyesight.
  • Not able to pass urine or change in how much urine is passed.
  • This drug may cause muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness. Sometimes, a very bad muscle problem may happen that may lead to kidney problems. Rarely, deaths have happened in people who get these problems when taking drugs like this one. Call your doctor right away if you have muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness that is not normal (with or without fever or feeling out of sorts). Call your doctor right away if you have muscle signs that last after your doctor has told you to stop taking this drug.
  • Very bad and sometimes deadly liver problems have happened with this drug. Call your doctor right away if you have signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.
What are some other side effects of this drug?
  • All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:
  • Headache.
  • Dizziness.
  • Feeling tired or weak.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Nose and throat irritation.
  • Runny nose.
  • Stuffy nose.
  • Cough.
  • These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
  • You may report side effects to your national health agency.
How is this drug best taken?
  • Use this drug as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.
  • To gain the most benefit, do not miss doses.
  • Keep taking this drug as you have been told by your doctor or other health care provider, even if you feel well.
  • Take with or without food.
What do I do if I miss a dose?
  • Take a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
  • If it is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.
How do I store and/or throw out this drug?
  • Store at room temperature.
  • Protect from light.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.
General drug facts
  • If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
  • Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else’s drugs.
  • Keep a list of all your drugs (prescription, natural products, vitamins, OTC) with you. Give this list to your doctor.
  • Talk with the doctor before starting any new drug, including prescription or OTC, natural products, or vitamins.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.
Pravastatin (Patient Education – Pediatric Medication)
You must carefully read the “Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer” below in order to understand and correctly use this information
Pronunciation

(prav a STAT in)

Brand Names: US

Pravachol

Brand Names: Canada

Pravachol

What is this drug used for?
  • It is used to lower bad cholesterol and raise good cholesterol (HDL).
  • It is used to lower triglycerides.
  • It is used to slow the progress of heart disease.
  • It may be given to your child for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.
What do I need to tell the doctor BEFORE my child takes this drug?
  • If your child has an allergy to this drug or any part of this drug.
  • If your child is allergic to any drugs like this one or any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell the doctor about the allergy and what signs your child had, like rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs.
  • If your child is taking gemfibrozil.
  • If your child has any of these health problems: Active liver disease or a rise in liver enzymes.
  • If your child is pregnant:
  • Do not give this drug to your child if she is pregnant.
  • If your child is breast-feeding a baby:
  • Be sure your child does not breast-feed a baby while taking this drug.
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this drug.
  • Tell the doctor and pharmacist about all of your child’s drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for your child to take this drug with all of his/her drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug your child takes without checking with the doctor.
What are some things I need to know or do while my child takes this drug?
  • Tell all of your child’s health care providers that your child is taking this drug. This includes your child’s doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • Have your child’s blood work checked often. Talk with your child’s doctor.
  • Have your child follow the diet and workout plan your child’s doctor told you about.
  • Do not give your child more of this drug than what the doctor told you to give. Giving more of this drug than you are told may raise the chance of very bad side effects.
  • If you have high blood sugar (diabetes), you will need to watch your blood sugar closely.
  • If your child takes cholestyramine or colestipol, have your child take them at least 4 hours before or 1 hour after this drug.
  • Alcohol may interact with this drug. Be sure your child does not drink alcohol.
  • If your child is or may be sexually active:
  • This drug may cause harm to the unborn baby if your child takes it during pregnancy.
  • Have your child use birth control to prevent pregnancy while taking this drug.
What are some side effects that I need to call my child’s doctor about right away?
  • WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your child’s doctor or get medical help right away if your child has any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Chest pain.
  • Change in eyesight.
  • Not able to pass urine or change in how much urine is passed.
  • This drug may cause muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness. Sometimes, a very bad muscle problem may happen that may lead to kidney problems. Rarely, deaths have happened in people who get these problems when taking drugs like this one. Call the doctor right away if your child has muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness that is not normal (with or without fever or feeling out of sorts). Call the doctor right away if your child has muscle signs that last after the doctor has told you to stop giving this drug.
  • Very bad and sometimes deadly liver problems have happened with this drug. Call your child’s doctor right away if your child has signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.
What are some other side effects of this drug?
  • All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your child’s doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother your child or do not go away:
  • Headache.
  • Dizziness.
  • Feeling tired or weak.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Nose and throat irritation.
  • Runny nose.
  • Stuffy nose.
  • Cough.
  • These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your child’s doctor. Call your child’s doctor for medical advice about side effects.
  • You may report side effects to your national health agency.
How is this drug best given?
  • Give this drug as ordered by your child’s doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.
  • To gain the most benefit, do not miss giving your child doses.
  • Keep giving this drug to your child as you have been told by your child’s doctor or other health care provider, even if your child feels well.
  • Give this drug with or without food.
What do I do if my child misses a dose?
  • Give a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
  • If it is close to the time for your child’s next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your child’s normal time.
  • Do not give 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.
How do I store and/or throw out this drug?
  • Store at room temperature.
  • Protect from light.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.
General drug facts
  • If your child’s symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your child’s doctor.
  • Do not share your child’s drug with others and do not give anyone else’s drug to your child.
  • Keep a list of all your child’s drugs (prescription, natural products, vitamins, OTC) with you. Give this list to your child’s doctor.
  • Talk with your child’s doctor before giving your child any new drug, including prescription or OTC, natural products, or vitamins.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your child’s doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.